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2019


Soft-magnetic coatings as possible sensors for magnetic imaging of superconductors
Soft-magnetic coatings as possible sensors for magnetic imaging of superconductors

Ionescu, A., Simmendinger, J., Bihler, M., Miksch, C., Fischer, P., Soltan, S., Schütz, G., Albrecht, J.

Supercond. Sci. and Tech., 33, pages: 015002, IOP, December 2019 (article)

Abstract
Magnetic imaging of superconductors typically requires a soft-magnetic material placed on top of the superconductor to probe local magnetic fields. For reasonable results the influence of the magnet onto the superconductor has to be small. Thin YBCO films with soft-magnetic coatings are investigated using SQUID magnetometry. Detailed measurements of the magnetic moment as a function of temperature, magnetic field and time have been performed for different heterostructures. It is found that the modification of the superconducting transport in these heterostructures strongly depends on the magnetic and structural properties of the soft-magnetic material. This effect is especially pronounced for an inhomogeneous coating consisting of ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

2019


link (url) DOI [BibTex]


HPLC of monolayer-protected Gold clusters with baseline separation
HPLC of monolayer-protected Gold clusters with baseline separation

Knoppe, S., Vogt, P.

Analytical Chemistry, 91, pages: 1603, December 2019 (article)

Abstract
The properties of ultrasmall metal nanoparticles (ca. 10–200 metal atoms), or monolayer-protected metal clusters (MPCs), drastically depend on their atomic structure. For systematic characterization and application, assessment of their purity is of high importance. Currently, the gold standard for purity control of MPCs is mass spectrometry (MS). Mass spectrometry, however, cannot always detect small impurities; MS of certain clusters, for example, ESI-TOF of Au40(SR)24, is not successful at all. We here present a simple reversed-phase HPLC method for purity control of a series of small alkanethiolate-protected gold clusters. The method allows the detection of small impurities with high sensitivity. Linear correlation between alkyl chain length of Au25(SC_n H_(2n+1))18 clusters (n = 6, 8, 10, 12) and their retention time was noticed.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Acoustic hologram enhanced phased arrays for ultrasonic particle manipulation
Acoustic hologram enhanced phased arrays for ultrasonic particle manipulation

Cox, L., Melde, K., Croxford, A., Fischer, P., Drinkwater, B.

Phys. Rev. Applied, 12, pages: 064055, November 2019 (article)

Abstract
The ability to shape ultrasound fields is important for particle manipulation, medical therapeutics and imaging applications. If the amplitude and/or phase is spatially varied across the wavefront then it is possible to project ‘acoustic images’. When attempting to form an arbitrary desired static sound field, acoustic holograms are superior to phased arrays due to their significantly higher phase fidelity. However, they lack the dynamic flexibility of phased arrays. Here, we demonstrate how to combine the high-fidelity advantages of acoustic holograms with the dynamic control of phased arrays in the ultrasonic frequency range. Holograms are used with a 64-element phased array, driven with continuous excitation. Moving the position of the projected hologram via phase delays which steer the output beam is demonstrated experimentally. This allows the creation of a much more tightly focused point than with the phased array alone, whilst still being reconfigurable. It also allows the complex movement at a water-air interface of a “phase surfer” along a phase track or the manipulation of a more arbitrarily shaped particle via amplitude traps. Furthermore, a particle manipulation device with two emitters and a single split hologram is demonstrated that allows the positioning of a “phase surfer” along a 1D axis. This paper opens the door for new applications with complex manipulation of ultrasound whilst minimising the complexity and cost of the apparatus.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Decoding subcategories of human bodies from both body- and face-responsive cortical regions
Decoding subcategories of human bodies from both body- and face-responsive cortical regions

Foster, C., Zhao, M., Romero, J., Black, M. J., Mohler, B. J., Bartels, A., Bülthoff, I.

NeuroImage, 202(15):116085, November 2019 (article)

Abstract
Our visual system can easily categorize objects (e.g. faces vs. bodies) and further differentiate them into subcategories (e.g. male vs. female). This ability is particularly important for objects of social significance, such as human faces and bodies. While many studies have demonstrated category selectivity to faces and bodies in the brain, how subcategories of faces and bodies are represented remains unclear. Here, we investigated how the brain encodes two prominent subcategories shared by both faces and bodies, sex and weight, and whether neural responses to these subcategories rely on low-level visual, high-level visual or semantic similarity. We recorded brain activity with fMRI while participants viewed faces and bodies that varied in sex, weight, and image size. The results showed that the sex of bodies can be decoded from both body- and face-responsive brain areas, with the former exhibiting more consistent size-invariant decoding than the latter. Body weight could also be decoded in face-responsive areas and in distributed body-responsive areas, and this decoding was also invariant to image size. The weight of faces could be decoded from the fusiform body area (FBA), and weight could be decoded across face and body stimuli in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and a distributed body-responsive area. The sex of well-controlled faces (e.g. excluding hairstyles) could not be decoded from face- or body-responsive regions. These results demonstrate that both face- and body-responsive brain regions encode information that can distinguish the sex and weight of bodies. Moreover, the neural patterns corresponding to sex and weight were invariant to image size and could sometimes generalize across face and body stimuli, suggesting that such subcategorical information is encoded with a high-level visual or semantic code.

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paper pdf DOI [BibTex]

paper pdf DOI [BibTex]


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Sampling on Networks: Estimating Eigenvector Centrality on Incomplete Networks

Ruggeri, N., De Bacco, C.

International Conference on Complex Networks and Their Applications, November 2019 (article)

Abstract
We develop a new sampling method to estimate eigenvector centrality on incomplete networks. Our goalis to estimate this global centrality measure having at disposal a limited amount of data. This is the case inmany real-world scenarios where data collection is expensive, the network is too big for data storage capacityor only partial information is available. The sampling algorithm is theoretically grounded by results derivedfrom spectral approximation theory. We studied the problemon both synthetic and real data and tested theperformance comparing with traditional methods, such as random walk and uniform sampling. We show thatapproximations obtained from such methods are not always reliable and that our algorithm, while preservingcomputational scalability, improves performance under different error measures.

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Code Preprint pdf DOI [BibTex]

Code Preprint pdf DOI [BibTex]


A Helical Microrobot with an Optimized Propeller-Shape for Propulsion in Viscoelastic Biological Media
A Helical Microrobot with an Optimized Propeller-Shape for Propulsion in Viscoelastic Biological Media

Li., D., Jeong, M., Oren, E., Yu, T., Qiu, T.

Robotics, 8, pages: 87, MDPI, October 2019 (article)

Abstract
One major challenge for microrobots is to penetrate and effectively move through viscoelastic biological tissues. Most existing microrobots can only propel in viscous liquids. Recent advances demonstrate that sub-micron robots can actively penetrate nanoporous biological tissue, such as the vitreous of the eye. However, it is still difficult to propel a micron-sized device through dense biological tissue. Here, we report that a special twisted helical shape together with a high aspect ratio in cross-section permit a microrobot with a diameter of hundreds-of-micrometers to move through mouse liver tissue. The helical microrobot is driven by a rotating magnetic field and localized by ultrasound imaging inside the tissue. The twisted ribbon is made of molybdenum and a sharp tip is chemically etched to generate a higher pressure at the edge of the propeller to break the biopolymeric network of the dense tissue.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Acoustic Holographic Cell Patterning in a Biocompatible Hydrogel
Acoustic Holographic Cell Patterning in a Biocompatible Hydrogel

Ma, Z., Holle, A., Melde, K., Qiu, T., Poeppel, K., Kadiri, V., Fischer, P.

Adv. Mat., 32(1904181), October 2019 (article)

Abstract
Acoustophoresis is promising as a rapid, biocompatible, non-contact cell manipulation method, where cells are arranged along the nodes or antinodes of the acoustic field. Typically, the acoustic field is formed in a resonator, which results in highly symmetric regular patterns. However, arbitrary, non-symmetrically shaped cell assemblies are necessary to obtain the irregular cellular arrangements found in biological tissues. We show that arbitrarily shaped cell patterns can be obtained from the complex acoustic field distribution defined by an acoustic hologram. Attenuation of the sound field induces localized acoustic streaming and the resultant convection flow gently delivers the suspended cells to the image plane where they form the designed pattern. We show that the process can be implemented in a biocompatible collagen solution, which can then undergo gelation to immobilize the cell pattern inside the viscoelastic matrix. The patterned cells exhibit F-actin-based protrusions, which indicates that the cells grow and thrive within the matrix. Cell viability assays and brightfield imaging after one week confirm cell survival and that the patterns persist. Acoustophoretic cell manipulation by holographic fields thus holds promise for non-contact, long-range, long-term cellular pattern formation, with a wide variety of potential applications in tissue engineering and mechanobiology.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Active Perception based Formation Control for Multiple Aerial Vehicles
Active Perception based Formation Control for Multiple Aerial Vehicles

Tallamraju, R., Price, E., Ludwig, R., Karlapalem, K., Bülthoff, H. H., Black, M. J., Ahmad, A.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, Robotics and Automation Letters, 4(4):4491-4498, IEEE, October 2019 (article)

Abstract
We present a novel robotic front-end for autonomous aerial motion-capture (mocap) in outdoor environments. In previous work, we presented an approach for cooperative detection and tracking (CDT) of a subject using multiple micro-aerial vehicles (MAVs). However, it did not ensure optimal view-point configurations of the MAVs to minimize the uncertainty in the person's cooperatively tracked 3D position estimate. In this article, we introduce an active approach for CDT. In contrast to cooperatively tracking only the 3D positions of the person, the MAVs can actively compute optimal local motion plans, resulting in optimal view-point configurations, which minimize the uncertainty in the tracked estimate. We achieve this by decoupling the goal of active tracking into a quadratic objective and non-convex constraints corresponding to angular configurations of the MAVs w.r.t. the person. We derive this decoupling using Gaussian observation model assumptions within the CDT algorithm. We preserve convexity in optimization by embedding all the non-convex constraints, including those for dynamic obstacle avoidance, as external control inputs in the MPC dynamics. Multiple real robot experiments and comparisons involving 3 MAVs in several challenging scenarios are presented.

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pdf DOI Project Page [BibTex]

pdf DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

Berdahl, A., Brelsford, C., De Bacco, C., Dumas, M., Ferdinand, V., Grochow, J. A., nt Hébert-Dufresne, L., Kallus, Y., Kempes, C. P., Kolchinsky, A., Larremore, D. B., Libby, E., Power, E. A., A., S. C., Tracey, B. D.

Scientific Reports, 9, pages: 15093, October 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Arrays of plasmonic nanoparticle dimers with defined nanogap spacers
Arrays of plasmonic nanoparticle dimers with defined nanogap spacers

Jeong, H., Adams, M. C., Guenther, J., Alarcon-Correa, M., Kim, I., Choi, E., Miksch, C., Mark, A. F. M., Mark, A. G., Fischer, P.

ACS Nano, 13, pages: 11453-11459, September 2019 (article)

Abstract
Plasmonic molecules are building blocks of metallic nanostructures that give rise to intriguing optical phenomena with similarities to those seen in molecular systems. The ability to design plasmonic hybrid structures and molecules with nanometric resolution would enable applications in optical metamaterials and sensing that presently cannot be demonstrated, because of a lack of suitable fabrication methods allowing the structural control of the plasmonic atoms on a large scale. Here we demonstrate a wafer-scale “lithography-free” parallel fabrication scheme to realize nanogap plasmonic meta-molecules with precise control over their size, shape, material, and orientation. We demonstrate how we can tune the corresponding coupled resonances through the entire visible spectrum. Our fabrication method, based on glancing angle physical vapor deposition with gradient shadowing, permits critical parameters to be varied across the wafer and thus is ideally suited to screen potential structures. We obtain billions of aligned dimer structures with controlled variation of the spectral properties across the wafer. We spectroscopically map the plasmonic resonances of gold dimer structures and show that they not only are in good agreement with numerically modeled spectra, but also remain functional, at least for a year, in ambient conditions.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Decoding the Viewpoint and Identity of Faces and Bodies
Decoding the Viewpoint and Identity of Faces and Bodies

Foster, C., Zhao, M., Bolkart, T., Black, M., Bartels, A., Bülthoff, I.

Journal of Vision, 19(10): 54c, pages: 54-55, Arvo Journals, September 2019 (article)

Abstract
(2019). . , 19(10): 25.13, 54-55. doi: Zitierlink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-7493-4

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Color Constancy in Deep Neural Networks

Flachot, A., Schuett, H., Fleming, R. W., Wichmann, F. A., Gegenfurtner, K. R.

Journal of Vision, 19(10)(298), September 2019 (article)

Abstract
Journal of Vision 2019;19(10):298. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/19.10.298.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Convolutional neural networks: A magic bullet for gravitational-wave detection?

Gebhard, T., Kilbertus, N., Harry, I., Schölkopf, B.

Physical Review D, 100(6):063015, American Physical Society, September 2019 (article)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Data scarcity, robustness and extreme multi-label classification

Babbar, R., Schölkopf, B.

Machine Learning, 108(8):1329-1351, September 2019, Special Issue of the ECML PKDD 2019 Journal Track (article)

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Genetically modified M13 bacteriophage nanonets for enzyme catalysis and recovery
Genetically modified M13 bacteriophage nanonets for enzyme catalysis and recovery

Kadiri, V. M., Alarcon-Correa, M., Guenther, J. P., Ruppert, J., Bill, J., Rothenstein, D., Fischer, P.

Catalysts, 9, pages: 723, August 2019 (article)

Abstract
Enzyme-based biocatalysis exhibits multiple advantages over inorganic catalysts, including the biocompatibility and the unchallenged specificity of enzymes towards their substrate. The recovery and repeated use of enzymes is essential for any realistic application in biotechnology, but is not easily achieved with current strategies. For this purpose, enzymes are often immobilized on inorganic scaffolds, which could entail a reduction of the enzymes’ activity. Here, we show that immobilization to a nano-scaled biological scaffold, a nanonetwork of end-to-end cross-linked M13 bacteriophages, ensures high enzymatic activity and at the same time allows for the simple recovery of the enzymes. The bacteriophages have been genetically engineered to express AviTags at their ends, which permit biotinylation and their specific end-to-end self-assembly while allowing space on the major coat protein for enzyme coupling. We demonstrate that the phages form nanonetwork structures and that these so-called nanonets remain highly active even after re-using the nanonets multiple times in a flow-through reactor.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Light-controlled micromotors and soft microrobots
Light-controlled micromotors and soft microrobots

Palagi, S., Singh, D. P., Fischer, P.

Adv. Opt. Mat., 7, pages: 1900370, August 2019 (article)

Abstract
Mobile microscale devices and microrobots can be powered by catalytic reactions (chemical micromotors) or by external fields. This report is focused on the role of light as a versatile means for wirelessly powering and controlling such microdevices. Recent advances in the development of autonomous micromotors are discussed, where light permits their actuation with unprecedented control and thereby enables advances in the field of active matter. In addition, structuring the light field is a new means to drive soft microrobots that are based on (photo‐) responsive polymers. The behavior of the two main classes of thermo‐ and photoresponsive polymers adopted in microrobotics (poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) and liquid‐crystal elastomers) is analyzed, and recent applications are reported. The advantages and limitations of controlling micromotors and microrobots by light are reviewed, and some of the remaining challenges in the development of novel photo‐active materials for micromotors and microrobots are discussed.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Superior Magnetic Performance in FePt L1_0 Nanomaterials
Superior Magnetic Performance in FePt L1_0 Nanomaterials

Son, K., Ryu, G. H., Jeong, H., Fink, L., Merz, M., Nagel, P., Schuppler, S., Richter, G., Goering, E., Schütz, G.

Small, 15(1902353), July 2019 (article)

Abstract
The discovery of the high maximum energy product of 59 MGOe for NdFeB magnets is a breakthrough in the development of permanent magnets with a tremendous impact in many fields of technology. This value is still the world record, for 40 years. This work reports on a reliable and robust route to realize nearly perfectly ordered L1_0-phase FePt nanoparticles, leading to an unprecedented energy product of 80 MGOe at room temperature. Furthermore, with a 3 nm Au coverage, the magnetic polarization of these nanomagnets can be enhanced by 25% exceeding 1.8 T. This exceptional magnetization and anisotropy is confirmed by using multiple imaging and spectroscopic methods, which reveal highly consistent results. Due to the unprecedented huge energy product, this material can be envisaged as a new advanced basic magnetic component in modern micro and nanosized devices.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Recent advances in gold nanoparticles forbiomedical applications: from hybrid structuresto multi-functionality
Recent advances in gold nanoparticles forbiomedical applications: from hybrid structuresto multi-functionality

Jeong, H., Choi, E., Ellis, E., Lee, T.

J. of Mat. Chem. B, 7, pages: 3480, May 2019 (article)

Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are arguably the most versatile nanomaterials reported to date. Recentadvances in nanofabrication and chemical synthesis have expanded the scope of Au NPs from classicalhomogeneous nanospheres to a wide range of hybrid nanostructures with programmable size, shapeand composition. Novel physiochemical properties can be achievedviadesign and engineering of thehybrid nanostructures. In this review we discuss the recent progress in the development of complexhybrid Au NPs and propose a classification framework based on three fundamental structuraldimensions (length scale, complexity and symmetry) to aid categorising, comparing and designingvarious types of Au NPs. Their novel functions and potential for biomedical applications will also bediscussed, featuring point-of-care diagnostics by advanced optical spectroscopy and assays, as well asminimally invasive surgeries and targeted drug delivery using multifunctional nano-robot

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Aging phenomena during phase separation in fluids: decay of autocorrelation for vapor-liquid transitions

Roy, S., Bera, A., Majumder, S., Das, S. K.

Soft Matter, 15(23):4743-4750, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, May 2019 (article)

Abstract
We performed molecular dynamics simulations to study relaxation phenomena during vapor–liquid transitions in a single component Lennard-Jones system. Results from two different overall densities are presented: one in the neighborhood of the vapor branch of the coexistence curve and the other being close to the critical density. The nonequilibrium morphologies, growth mechanisms and growth laws in the two cases are vastly different. In the low density case growth occurs via diffusive coalescence of droplets in a disconnected morphology. On the other hand, the elongated structure in the higher density case grows via advective transport of particles inside the tube-like liquid domains. The objective in this work has been to identify how the decay of the order-parameter autocorrelation, an important quantity to understand aging dynamics, differs in the two cases. In the case of the disconnected morphology, we observe a very robust power-law decay, as a function of the ratio of the characteristic lengths at the observation time and at the age of the system, whereas the results for the percolating structure appear rather complex. To quantify the decay in the latter case, unlike the standard method followed in a previous study, here we have performed a finite-size scaling analysis. The outcome of this analysis shows the presence of a strong preasymptotic correction, while revealing that in this case also, albeit in the asymptotic limit, the decay follows a power-law. Even though the corresponding exponents in the two cases differ drastically, this study, combined with a few recent ones, suggests that power-law behavior of this correlation function is rather universal in coarsening dynamics.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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SPINDLE: End-to-end learning from EEG/EMG to extrapolate animal sleep scoring across experimental settings, labs and species

Miladinovic, D., Muheim, C., Bauer, S., Spinnler, A., Noain, D., Bandarabadi, M., Gallusser, B., Krummenacher, G., Baumann, C., Adamantidis, A., Brown, S. A., Buhmann, J. M.

PLOS Computational Biology, 15(4):1-30, Public Library of Science, April 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Self-Assembled Phage-Based Colloids for High Localized Enzymatic Activity
Self-Assembled Phage-Based Colloids for High Localized Enzymatic Activity

Alarcon-Correa, M., Guenther, J., Troll, J., Kadiri, V. M., Bill, J., Fischer, P., Rothenstein, D.

ACS Nano, 13, pages: 5810–5815, March 2019 (article)

Abstract
Catalytically active colloids are model systems for chemical motors and active matter. It is desirable to replace the inorganic catalysts and the toxic fuels that are often used, with biocompatible enzymatic reactions. However, compared to inorganic catalysts, enzyme-coated colloids tend to exhibit less activity. Here, we show that the self-assembly of genetically engineered M13 bacteriophages that bind enzymes to magnetic beads ensures high and localized enzymatic activity. These phage-decorated colloids provide a proteinaceous environment for directed enzyme immobilization. The magnetic properties of the colloidal carrier particle permit repeated enzyme recovery from a reaction solution, while the enzymatic activity is retained. Moreover, localizing the phage-based construct with a magnetic field in a microcontainer allows the enzyme-phage-colloids to function as an enzymatic micropump, where the enzymatic reaction generates a fluid flow. This system shows the fastest fluid flow reported to date by a biocompatible enzymatic micropump. In addition, it is functional in complex media including blood where the enzyme driven micropump can be powered at the physiological blood-urea concentration.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Absolute diffusion measurements of active enzyme solutions by NMR
Absolute diffusion measurements of active enzyme solutions by NMR

Guenther, J., Majer, G., Fischer, P.

J. Chem. Phys., 150(124201), March 2019 (article)

Abstract
The diffusion of enzymes is of fundamental importance for many biochemical processes. Enhanced or directed enzyme diffusion can alter the accessibility of substrates and the organization of enzymes within cells. Several studies based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) report enhanced diffusion of enzymes upon interaction with their substrate or inhibitor. In this context, major importance is given to the enzyme fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, for which enhanced diffusion has been reported even though the catalysed reaction is endothermic. Additionally, enhanced diffusion of tracer particles surrounding the active aldolase enzymes has been reported. These studies suggest that active enzymes can act as chemical motors that self-propel and give rise to enhanced diffusion. However, fluorescence studies of enzymes can, despite several advantages, suffer from artefacts. Here we show that the absolute diffusion coefficients of active enzyme solutions can be determined with Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PFG-NMR). The advantage of PFG-NMR is that the motion of the molecule of interest is directly observed in its native state without the need for any labelling. Further, PFG-NMR is model-free and thus yields absolute diffusion constants. Our PFG-NMR experiments of solutions containing active fructose-bisphosphate aldolase from rabbit muscle do not show any diffusion enhancement for the active enzymes nor the surrounding molecules. Additionally, we do not observe any diffusion enhancement of aldolase in the presence of its inhibitor pyrophosphate.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


Chemical Nanomotors at the Gram Scale Form a Dense Active Optorheological Medium
Chemical Nanomotors at the Gram Scale Form a Dense Active Optorheological Medium

Choudhury, U., Singh, D. P., Qiu, T., Fischer, P.

Adv. Mat., 31(1807382), Febuary 2019 (article)

Abstract
The rheological properties of a colloidal suspension are a function of the concentration of the colloids and their interactions. While suspensions of passive colloids are well studied and have been shown to form crystals, gels, and glasses, examples of energy‐consuming “active” colloidal suspensions are still largely unexplored. Active suspensions of biological matter, such as motile bacteria or dense mixtures of active actin–motor–protein mixtures have, respectively, reveals superfluid‐like and gel‐like states. Attractive inanimate systems for active matter are chemically self‐propelled particles. It has so far been challenging to use these swimming particles at high enough densities to affect the bulk material properties of the suspension. Here, it is shown that light‐triggered asymmetric titanium dioxide that self‐propel, can be obtained in large quantities, and self‐organize to make a gram‐scale active medium. The suspension shows an activity‐dependent tenfold reversible change in its bulk viscosity.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


 Perceptual Effects of Inconsistency in Human Animations
Perceptual Effects of Inconsistency in Human Animations

Kenny, S., Mahmood, N., Honda, C., Black, M. J., Troje, N. F.

ACM Trans. Appl. Percept., 16(1):2:1-2:18, Febuary 2019 (article)

Abstract
The individual shape of the human body, including the geometry of its articulated structure and the distribution of weight over that structure, influences the kinematics of a person’s movements. How sensitive is the visual system to inconsistencies between shape and motion introduced by retargeting motion from one person onto the shape of another? We used optical motion capture to record five pairs of male performers with large differences in body weight, while they pushed, lifted, and threw objects. From these data, we estimated both the kinematics of the actions as well as the performer’s individual body shape. To obtain consistent and inconsistent stimuli, we created animated avatars by combining the shape and motion estimates from either a single performer or from different performers. Using these stimuli we conducted three experiments in an immersive virtual reality environment. First, a group of participants detected which of two stimuli was inconsistent. Performance was very low, and results were only marginally significant. Next, a second group of participants rated perceived attractiveness, eeriness, and humanness of consistent and inconsistent stimuli, but these judgements of animation characteristics were not affected by consistency of the stimuli. Finally, a third group of participants rated properties of the objects rather than of the performers. Here, we found strong influences of shape-motion inconsistency on perceived weight and thrown distance of objects. This suggests that the visual system relies on its knowledge of shape and motion and that these components are assimilated into an altered perception of the action outcome. We propose that the visual system attempts to resist inconsistent interpretations of human animations. Actions involving object manipulations present an opportunity for the visual system to reinterpret the introduced inconsistencies as a change in the dynamics of an object rather than as an unexpected combination of body shape and body motion.

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publisher pdf DOI [BibTex]

publisher pdf DOI [BibTex]


First Observation of Optical Activity in Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering
First Observation of Optical Activity in Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering

Collins, J., Rusimova, K., Hooper, D., Jeong, H. H., Ohnoutek, L., Pradaux-Caggiano, F., Verbiest, T., Carbery, D., Fischer, P., Valev, V.

Phys. Rev. X, 9(011024), January 2019 (article)

Abstract
Chiral nano- or metamaterials and surfaces enable striking photonic properties, such as negative refractive index and superchiral light, driving promising applications in novel optical components, nanorobotics, and enhanced chiral molecular interactions with light. In characterizing chirality, although nonlinear chiroptical techniques are typically much more sensitive than their linear optical counterparts, separating true chirality from anisotropy is a major challenge. Here, we report the first observation of optical activity in second-harmonic hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS). We demonstrate the effect in a 3D isotropic suspension of Ag nanohelices in water. The effect is 5 orders of magnitude stronger than linear optical activity and is well pronounced above the multiphoton luminescence background. Because of its sensitivity, isotropic environment, and straightforward experimental geometry, HRS optical activity constitutes a fundamental experimental breakthrough in chiral photonics for media including nanomaterials, metamaterials, and chemical molecules.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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A 32-channel multi-coil setup optimized for human brain shimming at 9.4T

Aghaeifar, A., Zhou, J., Heule, R., Tabibian, B., Schölkopf, B., Jia, F., Zaitsev, M., Scheffler, K.

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 2019, (Early View) (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Multidimensional Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization
Multidimensional Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization

Stimper, V., Bauer, S., Ernstorfer, R., Schölkopf, B., Xian, R. P.

IEEE Access, 7, pages: 165437-165447, 2019 (article)

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arXiv link (url) DOI [BibTex]

arXiv link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Response of active Brownian particles to shear flow

Asheichyk, K., Solon, A., Rohwer, C. M., Krüger, M.

The Journal of Chemical Physics, 150(14), American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, N.Y., 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Vortex Mass in the Three-Dimensional O(2) Scalar Theory

Delfino, G., Selke, W., Squarcini, A.

Physical Review Letters, 122(5), American Physical Society, Woodbury, N.Y., 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Dynamics near planar walls for various model self-phoretic particles

Bayati, P., Popescu, M. N., Uspal, W. E., Dietrich, S., Najafi, A.

Soft Matter, 15(28):5644-5672, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Glucose Oxidase Micropumps: Multi-Faceted Effects of Chemical Activity on Tracer Particles Near the Solid-Liquid Interface

Munteanu, R. E., Popescu, M. N., Gáspár, S.

Condensed Matter, 4(3), MDPI, Basel, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Criticality senses topology

Vasilyev, O. A., Maciolek, A., Dietrich, S.

EPL, 128(2), EDP Science, Les-Ulis, 2019 (article)

icm

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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TD-regularized actor-critic methods

Parisi, S., Tangkaratt, V., Peters, J., Khan, M. E.

Machine Learning, 108(8):1467-1501, (Editors: Karsten Borgwardt, Po-Ling Loh, Evimaria Terzi, and Antti Ukkonen), 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Statistical Coverage Control of Mobile Sensor Networks

Arslan, Ö.

IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 35(4):889-908, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Probabilistic solutions to ordinary differential equations as nonlinear Bayesian filtering: a new perspective

Tronarp, F., Kersting, H., Särkkä, S. H. P.

Statistics and Computing, 29(6):1297-1315, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Learning to Control Highly Accelerated Ballistic Movements on Muscular Robots
Learning to Control Highly Accelerated Ballistic Movements on Muscular Robots

Büchler, D., Calandra, R., Peters, J.

2019 (article) Submitted

Abstract
High-speed and high-acceleration movements are inherently hard to control. Applying learning to the control of such motions on anthropomorphic robot arms can improve the accuracy of the control but might damage the system. The inherent exploration of learning approaches can lead to instabilities and the robot reaching joint limits at high speeds. Having hardware that enables safe exploration of high-speed and high-acceleration movements is therefore desirable. To address this issue, we propose to use robots actuated by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs). In this paper, we present a four degrees of freedom (DoFs) robot arm that reaches high joint angle accelerations of up to 28000 °/s^2 while avoiding dangerous joint limits thanks to the antagonistic actuation and limits on the air pressure ranges. With this robot arm, we are able to tune control parameters using Bayesian optimization directly on the hardware without additional safety considerations. The achieved tracking performance on a fast trajectory exceeds previous results on comparable PAM-driven robots. We also show that our system can be controlled well on slow trajectories with PID controllers due to careful construction considerations such as minimal bending of cables, lightweight kinematics and minimal contact between PAMs and PAMs with the links. Finally, we propose a novel technique to control the the co-contraction of antagonistic muscle pairs. Experimental results illustrate that choosing the optimal co-contraction level is vital to reach better tracking performance. Through the use of PAM-driven robots and learning, we do a small step towards the future development of robots capable of more human-like motions.

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Arxiv Video [BibTex]


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Drag Force for Asymmetrically Grafted Colloids in Polymer Solutions

Werner, M., Malgaretti, P., Maciolek, A.

Frontiers in Physics, 7, Frontiers Media, Lausanne, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Feeling Your Neighbors across the Walls: How Interpore Ionic Interactions Affect Capacitive Energy Storage

Kondrat, S., Vasilyev, O., Kornyshev, A. A.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 10(16):4523-4527, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Active Janus colloids at chemically structured surfaces

Uspal, W. E., Popescu, M. N., Dietrich, S., Tasinkevych, M.

The Journal of Chemical Physics, 150(20), American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, N.Y., 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Illumination-induced motion of a Janus nanoparticle in binary solvents

Araki, T., Maciolek, A.

Soft Matter, 15(26):5243-5254, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Transient response of an electrolyte to a thermal quench

Janssen, M., Bier, M.

Physical Review E, 99(4), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Robustifying Independent Component Analysis by Adjusting for Group-Wise Stationary Noise

Pfister*, N., Weichwald*, S., Bühlmann, P., Schölkopf, B.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 20(147):1-50, 2019, *equal contribution (article)

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ArXiv Code Project page PDF link (url) Project Page Project Page [BibTex]

ArXiv Code Project page PDF link (url) Project Page Project Page [BibTex]


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Enhancing Human Learning via Spaced Repetition Optimization

Tabibian, B., Upadhyay, U., De, A., Zarezade, A., Schölkopf, B., Gomez Rodriguez, M.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(10):3988-3993, National Academy of Sciences, 2019 (article)

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link (url) DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]

link (url) DOI Project Page Project Page [BibTex]


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Entropic Regularization of Markov Decision Processes

Belousov, B., Peters, J.

Entropy, 21(7):674, 2019 (article)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Searchers adjust their eye-movement dynamics to target characteristics in natural scenes

Rothkegel, L., Schütt, H., Trukenbrod, H., Wichmann, F. A., Engbert, R.

Scientific Reports, 9(1635), 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Spatial statistics for gaze patterns in scene viewing: Effects of repeated viewing

Trukenbrod, H. A., Barthelmé, S., Wichmann, F. A., Engbert, R.

Journal of Vision, 19(6):19, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Quantum mean embedding of probability distributions

Kübler, J. M., Muandet, K., Schölkopf, B.

Physical Review Research, 1(3):033159, American Physical Society, 2019 (article)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Flux and storage of energy in nonequilibrium stationary states

Holyst, R., Maciolek, A., Zhang, Y., Litniewski, M., Knycha\la, P., Kasprzak, M., Banaszak, M.

Physical Review E, 99(4), American Physical Society, Melville, NY, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Correlations and forces in sheared fluids with or without quenching

Rohwer, C. M., Maciolek, A., Dietrich, S., Krüger, M.

New Journal of Physics, 21, IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2019 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]