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2020


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Vision-based Force Estimation for a da Vinci Instrument Using Deep Neural Networks

Lee, Y., Husin, H. M., Forte, M. P., Lee, S., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Extended abstract presented as an Emerging Technology ePoster at the Annual Meeting of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES), Cleveland, Ohio, USA, August 2020 (misc) Accepted

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[BibTex]

2020


[BibTex]


A Fabric-Based Sensing System for Recognizing Social Touch
A Fabric-Based Sensing System for Recognizing Social Touch

Burns, R. B., Lee, H., Seifi, H., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Work-in-progress paper (3 pages) to be presented at the IEEE Haptics Symposium, Washington, DC, USA, March 2020 (misc) Accepted

Abstract
We present a fabric-based piezoresistive tactile sensor system designed to detect social touch gestures on a robot. The unique sensor design utilizes three layers of low-conductivity fabric sewn together on alternating edges to form an accordion pattern and secured between two outer high-conductivity layers. This five-layer design demonstrates a greater resistance range and better low-force sensitivity than previous designs that use one layer of low-conductivity fabric with or without a plastic mesh layer. An individual sensor from our system can presently identify six different communication gestures – squeezing, patting, scratching, poking, hand resting without movement, and no touch – with an average accuracy of 90%. A layer of foam can be added beneath the sensor to make a rigid robot more appealing for humans to touch without inhibiting the system’s ability to register social touch gestures.

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


Do Touch Gestures Affect How Electrovibration Feels?
Do Touch Gestures Affect How Electrovibration Feels?

Vardar, Y., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Hands-on demonstration (1 page) presented at the IEEE Haptics Symposium, Washington, DC, USA, March 2020 (misc) Accepted

hi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Learning to Predict Perceptual Distributions of Haptic Adjectives
Learning to Predict Perceptual Distributions of Haptic Adjectives

Richardson, B. A., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Frontiers in Neurorobotics, 13(116):1-16, Febuary 2020 (article)

Abstract
When humans touch an object with their fingertips, they can immediately describe its tactile properties using haptic adjectives, such as hardness and roughness; however, human perception is subjective and noisy, with significant variation across individuals and interactions. Recent research has worked to provide robots with similar haptic intelligence but was focused on identifying binary haptic adjectives, ignoring both attribute intensity and perceptual variability. Combining ordinal haptic adjective labels gathered from human subjects for a set of 60 objects with features automatically extracted from raw multi-modal tactile data collected by a robot repeatedly touching the same objects, we designed a machine-learning method that incorporates partial knowledge of the distribution of object labels into training; then, from a single interaction, it predicts a probability distribution over the set of ordinal labels. In addition to analyzing the collected labels (10 basic haptic adjectives) and demonstrating the quality of our method's predictions, we hold out specific features to determine the influence of individual sensor modalities on the predictive performance for each adjective. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of modeling both the intensity and the variation of haptic perception, two crucial yet previously neglected components of human haptic perception.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Exercising with Baxter: Preliminary Support for Assistive Social-Physical Human-Robot Interaction

Fitter, N. T., Mohan, M., Kuchenbecker, K. J., Johnson, M. J.

Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 17(19), Febuary 2020 (article)

Abstract
Background: The worldwide population of older adults will soon exceed the capacity of assisted living facilities. Accordingly, we aim to understand whether appropriately designed robots could help older adults stay active at home. Methods: Building on related literature as well as guidance from experts in game design, rehabilitation, and physical and occupational therapy, we developed eight human-robot exercise games for the Baxter Research Robot, six of which involve physical human-robot contact. After extensive iteration, these games were tested in an exploratory user study including 20 younger adult and 20 older adult users. Results: Only socially and physically interactive games fell in the highest ranges for pleasantness, enjoyment, engagement, cognitive challenge, and energy level. Our games successfully spanned three different physical, cognitive, and temporal challenge levels. User trust and confidence in Baxter increased significantly between pre- and post-study assessments. Older adults experienced higher exercise, energy, and engagement levels than younger adults, and women rated the robot more highly than men on several survey questions. Conclusions: The results indicate that social-physical exercise with a robot is more pleasant, enjoyable, engaging, cognitively challenging, and energetic than similar interactions that lack physical touch. In addition to this main finding, researchers working in similar areas can build on our design practices, our open-source resources, and the age-group and gender differences that we found.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Effect of the soft layer thickness of magnetization reversal process of exchange-spring nanomagnet patterns

Son, K., Schütz, G., Goering, E.

{Current Applied Physics}, 20(4):477-483, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]


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Tuning the magnetic properties of permalloy-based magnetoplasmonic crystals for sensor applications

Murzin, D. V., Belyaev, V. K., Groß, F., Gräfe, J., Rivas, M., Rodionova, V. V.

{Japanese Journal of Applied Physics}, 59(SE), IOP Publishing Ltd, Bristol, England, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Creating zero-field skyrmions in exchange-biased multilayers through X-ray illumination

Guang, Y., Bykova, I., Liu, Y., Yu, G., Goering, E., Weigand, M., Gräfe, J., Kim, S. K., Zhang, J., Zhang, H., Yan, Z., Wan, C., Feng, J., Wang, X., Guo, C., Wei, H., Peng, Y., Tserkovnyak, Y., Han, X., Schütz, G.

{Nature Communications}, 11, Nature Publishing Group, London, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Element-resolved study of the evolution of magnetic response in FexN compounds

Chen, Y., Gölden, D., Dirba, I., Huang, M., Gutfleisch, O., Nagel, P., Merz, M., Schuppler, S., Schütz, G., Alff, L., Goering, E.

{Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials}, 498, NH, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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The role of temperature and drive current in skyrmion dynamics

Litzius, K., Leliaert, J., Bassirian, P., Rodrigues, D., Kromin, S., Lemesh, I., Zazvorka, J., Lee, K., Mulkers, J., Kerber, N., Heinze, D., Keil, N., Reeve, R. M., Weigand, M., Van Waeyenberge, B., Schütz, G., Everschor-Sitte, K., Beach, G. S. D., Kläui, M.

{Nature Electronics}, 3(1):30-36, Springer Nature, London, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Magnetic flux penetration into micron-sized superconductor/ferromagnet bilayers

Simmendinger, J., Weigand, M., Schütz, G., Albrecht, J.

{Superconductor Science and Technology}, 33(2), IOP Pub., Bristol, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with flexible metal-organic frameworks

Bondorf, L.

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2020 (mastersthesis)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Fabrication and temperature-dependent magnetic properties of large-area L10-FePt/Co exchange-spring magnet nanopatterns

Son, K., Schütz, G.

{Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems And Nanostructures}, 115, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Physical Variables Underlying Tactile Stickiness during Fingerpad Detachment
Physical Variables Underlying Tactile Stickiness during Fingerpad Detachment

Nam, S., Vardar, Y., Gueorguiev, D., Kuchenbecker, K. J.

Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2020 (article) Accepted

Abstract
One may notice a relatively wide range of tactile sensations even when touching the same hard, flat surface in similar ways. Little is known about the reasons for this variability, so we decided to investigate how the perceptual intensity of light stickiness relates to the physical interaction between the skin and the surface. We conducted a psychophysical experiment in which nine participants actively pressed their finger on a flat glass plate with a normal force close to 1.5 N and detached it after a few seconds. A custom-designed apparatus recorded the contact force vector and the finger contact area during each interaction as well as pre- and post-trial finger moisture. After detaching their finger, participants judged the stickiness of the glass using a nine-point scale. We explored how sixteen physical variables derived from the recorded data correlate with each other and with the stickiness judgments of each participant. These analyses indicate that stickiness perception mainly depends on the pre-detachment pressing duration, the time taken for the finger to detach, and the impulse in the normal direction after the normal force changes sign; finger-surface adhesion seems to build with pressing time, causing a larger normal impulse during detachment and thus a more intense stickiness sensation. We additionally found a strong between-subjects correlation between maximum real contact area and peak pull-off force, as well as between finger moisture and impulse.

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[BibTex]


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How to functionalise metal-organic frameworks to enable guest nanocluster embedment

King, J., Zhang, L., Doszczeczko, S., Sambalova, O., Luo, H., Rohman, F., Phillips, O., Borgschulte, A., Hirscher, M., Addicoat, M., Szilágyi, P. A.

{Journal of Materials Chemistry A}, 8(9):4889-4897, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Thermal nucleation and high-resolution imaging of submicrometer magnetic bubbles in thin thulium iron garnet films with perpendicular anisotropy

Büttner, F., Mawass, M. A., Bauer, J., Rosenberg, E., Caretta, L., Avci, C. O., Gräfe, J., Finizio, S., Vaz, C. A. F., Novakovic, N., Weigand, M., Litzius, K., Förster, J., Träger, N., Groß, F., Suzuki, D., Huang, M., Bartell, J., Kronast, F., Raabe, J., Schütz, G., Ross, C. A., Beach, G. S. D.

{Physical Review Materials}, 4(1), American Physical Society, College Park, MD, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Safe and Fast Tracking on a Robot Manipulator: Robust MPC and Neural Network Control
Safe and Fast Tracking on a Robot Manipulator: Robust MPC and Neural Network Control

Nubert, J., Koehler, J., Berenz, V., Allgower, F., Trimpe, S.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2020 (article) Accepted

Abstract
Fast feedback control and safety guarantees are essential in modern robotics. We present an approach that achieves both by combining novel robust model predictive control (MPC) with function approximation via (deep) neural networks (NNs). The result is a new approach for complex tasks with nonlinear, uncertain, and constrained dynamics as are common in robotics. Specifically, we leverage recent results in MPC research to propose a new robust setpoint tracking MPC algorithm, which achieves reliable and safe tracking of a dynamic setpoint while guaranteeing stability and constraint satisfaction. The presented robust MPC scheme constitutes a one-layer approach that unifies the often separated planning and control layers, by directly computing the control command based on a reference and possibly obstacle positions. As a separate contribution, we show how the computation time of the MPC can be drastically reduced by approximating the MPC law with a NN controller. The NN is trained and validated from offline samples of the MPC, yielding statistical guarantees, and used in lieu thereof at run time. Our experiments on a state-of-the-art robot manipulator are the first to show that both the proposed robust and approximate MPC schemes scale to real-world robotic systems.

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arXiv PDF DOI [BibTex]

arXiv PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Generation and characterization of focused helical x-ray beams

Loetgering, L., Baluktsian, M., Keskinbora, K., Horstmeyer, R., Wilhein, T., Schütz, G., Eikema, K. S. E., Witte, S.

Science Advances, 6(7), American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2020 (article)

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Generation and characterization of focused helical x-ray beams link (url) DOI [BibTex]

Generation and characterization of focused helical x-ray beams link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Materials for hydrogen-based energy storage - past, recent progress and future outlook

Hirscher, M., Yartys, V. A., Baricco, M., Bellosta von Colbe, J., Blanchard, D., Bowman Jr., R. C., Broom, D. P., Buckley, C. E., Chang, F., Chen, P., Cho, Y. W., Crivello, J., Cuevas, F., David, W. I. F., de Jongh, P. E., Denys, R. V., Dornheim, M., Felderhoff, M., Filinchuk, Y., Froudakis, G. E., Grant, D. M., Gray, E. M., Hauback, B. C., He, T., Humphries, T. D., Jensen, T. R., Kim, S., Kojima, Y., Latroche, M., Li, H., Lotostskyy, M. V., Makepeace, J. W., M\oller, K. T., Naheed, L., Ngene, P., Noréus, D., Nyg\aard, M. M., Orimo, S., Paskevicius, M., Pasquini, L., Ravnsbaek, D. B., Sofianos, M. V., Udovic, T. J., Vegge, T., Walker, G. S., Webb, C. J., Weidenthaler, C., Zlotea, C.

{Journal of Alloys and Compounds}, 827, Elsevier B.V., Lausanne, Switzerland, 2020 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]

2008


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Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

Jusufi, A., Goldman, D., Revzen, S., Full, R.

PNAS, 105(11):4215-4219, 2008 (article)

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link (url) [BibTex]

2008


link (url) [BibTex]


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Learning to control in operational space

Peters, J., Schaal, S.

International Journal of Robotics Research, 27, pages: 197-212, 2008, clmc (article)

Abstract
One of the most general frameworks for phrasing control problems for complex, redundant robots is operational space control. However, while this framework is of essential importance for robotics and well-understood from an analytical point of view, it can be prohibitively hard to achieve accurate control in face of modeling errors, which are inevitable in com- plex robots, e.g., humanoid robots. In this paper, we suggest a learning approach for opertional space control as a direct inverse model learning problem. A first important insight for this paper is that a physically cor- rect solution to the inverse problem with redundant degrees-of-freedom does exist when learning of the inverse map is performed in a suitable piecewise linear way. The second crucial component for our work is based on the insight that many operational space controllers can be understood in terms of a constrained optimal control problem. The cost function as- sociated with this optimal control problem allows us to formulate a learn- ing algorithm that automatically synthesizes a globally consistent desired resolution of redundancy while learning the operational space controller. From the machine learning point of view, this learning problem corre- sponds to a reinforcement learning problem that maximizes an immediate reward. We employ an expectation-maximization policy search algorithm in order to solve this problem. Evaluations on a three degrees of freedom robot arm are used to illustrate the suggested approach. The applica- tion to a physically realistic simulator of the anthropomorphic SARCOS Master arm demonstrates feasibility for complex high degree-of-freedom robots. We also show that the proposed method works in the setting of learning resolved motion rate control on real, physical Mitsubishi PA-10 medical robotics arm.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Adaptation to a sub-optimal desired trajectory

M. Mistry, E. A. G. L. T. Y. S. S. M. K.

Advances in Computational Motor Control VII, Symposium at the Society for Neuroscience Meeting, Washington DC, 2008, 2008, clmc (article)

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PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Human movement generation based on convergent flow fields: A computational model and a behavioral experiment

Hoffmann, H., Schaal, S.

In Advances in Computational Motor Control VII, Symposium at the Society for Neuroscience Meeting, Washington DC, 2008, 2008, clmc (inproceedings)

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link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Ab-initio Elektronentheorie der magnetischen Anisotropie im System FePt mit der Clusterentwicklungsmethode

Subkow, S.

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2008 (mastersthesis)

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[BibTex]


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Texture, microstructure and mechanical properties of equiaxed ultrafine-grained Zr fabricated by accumulative roll bonding

Jiang, L., Perez-Prado, M. T., Gruber, P. A., Arzt, E., Ruano, O. A., Kassner, M. E.

{Acta Materialia}, 56(6):1228-1242, 2008 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Theory of size mismatched alloy systems: many-body Kanzaki forces

Shchyglo, O., Diaz-Ortiz, A., Udyansky, A., Bugaev, V. N., Reichert, H., Dosch, H., Drautz, R.

{Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter}, 20, pages: 1-9, 2008 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Pinning of domain walls in composite particles

Kronmüller, H., Goll, D.

{Physica B}, 403, pages: 237-241, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Chaotic vortex dynamics and low current phases in the remanent state of MgB2 thin films

Albrecht, J., Audehm, P., Djupmyr, M.

{Superconductor Science and Technology}, 21, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Continuous and discontinuous grain-boundary wetting in ZnxAl1-x

Straumal, B. B., Gornakova, A. S., Kogtenkova, O. A., Protasova, S. G., Sursaeva, V. G., Baretzky, B.

{Physical Review B}, 78, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Magnetic circular dichroism in two-photon absorption and depth-resolved magnetic microscopy

Seib, J., Fähnle, M.

{Physical Review B}, 77, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Heat of adsorption for hydrogen in microporous high-surface-area materials

Schmitz, B., Müller, U., Trukhan, N., Schubert, M., Férey, G., Hirscher, M.

{ChemPhysChem}, 9, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Untersuchungen der Desorption von Wasserstoff in metall-organischen Gerüsten

Panella, B., Hönes, K., Müller, U., Trukhan, N., Schubert, M., Pütter, H., Hirscher, M.

{Angewandte Chemie}, 120, pages: 2169-2173, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Influence of domain wall pinning on the dynamic behavior of magnetic vortex structures: Time-resolved scanning x-ray transmission microscopy in NiFe thin film structures

Vansteenkiste, A., De Baerdemaeker, J., Chou, K. W., Stoll, H., Curcic, M., Tyliszczak, T., Woltersdorf, G., Back, C. H., Schütz, G., Van Waeyenberge, B.

{Physical Review B}, 77, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Temperature dependence of mechanical properties in ultrathin Au films with and without passivation

Gruber, P. A., Olliges, S., Arzt, E., Spolenak, R.

{Journal of Materials Research}, 23(9):2406-2419, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Structure, phase composition, and microhardness of carbon steels after high-pressure torsion

Mazilkin, A. A., Straumal, B., Protasova, S. G., Dobatkin, S. V., Baretzky, B.

{Journal of Materials Science}, 43, pages: 3800-3805, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Operational space control: A theoretical and emprical comparison

Nakanishi, J., Cory, R., Mistry, M., Peters, J., Schaal, S.

International Journal of Robotics Research, 27(6):737-757, 2008, clmc (article)

Abstract
Dexterous manipulation with a highly redundant movement system is one of the hallmarks of hu- man motor skills. From numerous behavioral studies, there is strong evidence that humans employ compliant task space control, i.e., they focus control only on task variables while keeping redundant degrees-of-freedom as compliant as possible. This strategy is robust towards unknown disturbances and simultaneously safe for the operator and the environment. The theory of operational space con- trol in robotics aims to achieve similar performance properties. However, despite various compelling theoretical lines of research, advanced operational space control is hardly found in actual robotics imple- mentations, in particular new kinds of robots like humanoids and service robots, which would strongly profit from compliant dexterous manipulation. To analyze the pros and cons of different approaches to operational space control, this paper focuses on a theoretical and empirical evaluation of different methods that have been suggested in the literature, but also some new variants of operational space controllers. We address formulations at the velocity, acceleration and force levels. First, we formulate all controllers in a common notational framework, including quaternion-based orientation control, and discuss some of their theoretical properties. Second, we present experimental comparisons of these approaches on a seven-degree-of-freedom anthropomorphic robot arm with several benchmark tasks. As an aside, we also introduce a novel parameter estimation algorithm for rigid body dynamics, which ensures physical consistency, as this issue was crucial for our successful robot implementations. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate that one of the simplified acceleration-based approaches can be advantageous in terms of task performance, ease of parameter tuning, and general robustness and compliance in face of inevitable modeling errors.

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link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Movement reproduction and obstacle avoidance with dynamic movement primitives and potential fields

Park, D., Hoffmann, H., Pastor, P., Schaal, S.

In IEEE International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2008., 2008, clmc (inproceedings)

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PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Magnetism of amorphous and highly anisotropic multilayer systems on flat substrates and nanospheres

Amaladass, E. P.

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2008 (phdthesis)

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link (url) [BibTex]


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Wetting and premelting of triple junctions and grain boundaries in the Al-Zn alloys

Straumal, B., Kogtenkova, O., Protasova, S., Mazilkin, A., Zieba, P., Czeppe, T., Wojewoda-Budka, J., Faryna, M.

In 495, pages: 126-131, Alicante, Spain, 2008 (inproceedings)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Interfaces in driven Ising models: shear enhances confinement

Smith, T. H. R., Vasilyev, O., Abraham, D. B., Maciolek, A., Schmidt, M.

{Physical Review Letters}, 101(6), 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Bose-Theorie der Dämpfung der Bewegung einer magnetischen Domänenwand

Hähnel, D.

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2008 (mastersthesis)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Planar high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic field gradients

Steppke, A., Becker, C., Grosse, V., Dörrer, L., Schmidl, F., Seidel, P., Djupmyr, M., Albrecht, J.

{Applied Physics Letters}, 92, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Terminal contact elements of insect attachment devices studied by transmission X-ray microscopy

Eimüller, T., Guttmann, P., Gorb, S. N.

{Journal of Experimental Biology}, 211, pages: 1958-1963, 2008 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Increase of Co solubility with decreasing grain size in ZnO

Straumal, B. B., Mazilkin, A. A., Protasova, S. G., Myatiev, A. A., Straumal, P. B., Baretzky, B.

{Acta Materialia}, 56, pages: 6246-6256, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Hydrogen adsorption (Carbon, Zeolites, Nanocubes)

Hirscher, M., Panella, B.

In Hydrogen as a Future Energy Carrier, pages: 173-188, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 2008 (incollection)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Uncompensated moments in the MnPd/Fe exchange bias system

Brück, S., Schütz, G., Goering, E., Ji, X., Krishnan, K. M.

{Physical Review Letters}, 101, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Aqueous deposition of ultraviolet luminescent columnar tin-doped indium hydroxide films

Qiu, Y., Bellina, P., Jeurgens, L. P. H., Leineweber, A., Welzel, U., Gerstel, P., Jiang, L., van Aken, P. A., Bill, J., Aldinger, F.

{Advanced Functional Materials}, 18, pages: 2572-2583, 2008 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Unified theory of near-adiabatic magnetization dynamics for collinear and noncollinear magnetization

Steiauf, D., Seib, J., Fähnle, M.

{Physical Review B}, 78, 2008 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]