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2014


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Soft Grippers Using Micro-Fibrillar Adhesives for Transfer Printing

Song, S., Sitti, M.

Advanced Materials, 26(28):4901-4906, 2014 (article)

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[BibTex]

2014


[BibTex]


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Self-Exploration of the Stumpy Robot with Predictive Information Maximization

Martius, G., Jahn, L., Hauser, H., V. Hafner, V.

In Proc. From Animals to Animats, SAB 2014, 8575, pages: 32-42, LNCS, Springer, 2014 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Dual Execution of Optimized Contact Interaction Trajectories

Toussaint, M., Ratliff, N., Bohg, J., Righetti, L., Englert, P., Schaal, S.

In 2014 IEEE/RSJ Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pages: 47-54, IEEE, Chicago, USA, 2014 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Efficient manipulation requires contact to reduce uncertainty. The manipulation literature refers to this as funneling: a methodology for increasing reliability and robustness by leveraging haptic feedback and control of environmental interaction. However, there is a fundamental gap between traditional approaches to trajectory optimization and this concept of robustness by funneling: traditional trajectory optimizers do not discover force feedback strategies. From a POMDP perspective, these behaviors could be regarded as explicit observation actions planned to sufficiently reduce uncertainty thereby enabling a task. While we are sympathetic to the full POMDP view, solving full continuous-space POMDPs in high-dimensions is hard. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach in which trajectory optimization objectives are augmented with new terms that reward uncertainty reduction through contacts, explicitly promoting funneling. This augmentation shifts the responsibility of robustness toward the actual execution of the optimized trajectories. Directly tracing trajectories through configuration space would lose all robustness-dual execution achieves robustness by devising force controllers to reproduce the temporal interaction profile encoded in the dual solution of the optimization problem. This work introduces dual execution in depth and analyze its performance through robustness experiments in both simulation and on a real-world robotic platform.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Information-Theoretic Bounded Rationality and ϵ-Optimality

Braun, DA, Ortega, PA

Entropy, 16(8):4662-4676, August 2014 (article)

Abstract
Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is to be optimized and information processing costs that are measured by entropic search costs. The main question of this article is how the information-theoretic free energy model relates to simple \(\epsilon\)-optimality models of bounded rational decision making, where the decision maker is satisfied with any action in an \(\epsilon\)-neighborhood of the optimal utility. We find that the stochastic policies that optimize the free energy trade-off comply with the notion of \(\epsilon\)-optimality. Moreover, this optimality criterion even holds when the environment is adversarial. We conclude that the study of bounded rationality based on \(\epsilon\)-optimality criteria that abstract away from the particulars of the information processing constraints is compatible with the information-theoretic free energy model of bounded rationality.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Vortex-Kern-Korrelation in gekoppelten Systemen

Jüllig, P.

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2014 (phdthesis)

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link (url) [BibTex]

link (url) [BibTex]


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Unidirectional sub-100-ps magnetic vortex core reversal

Noske, M., Gangwar, A., Stoll, H., Kammerer, M., Sproll, M., Dieterle, G., Weigand, M., Fähnle, M., Woltersdorf, G., Back, C. H., Schütz, G.

{Physical Review B}, 90(10), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Domain wall transformations and hopping in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanostructures imaged with high resolution x-ray magnetic microscopy

Finizio, S., Foerster, M., Krüger, B., Vaz, C. A. F., Miyawaki, T., Mawass, M. A., Pena, L., Méchin, L., Hühn, S., Moshnyaga, V., Büttner, F., Bisig, A., Le Guyader, L., El Moussaoui, S., Valencia, S., Kronast, F., Eisebitt, S., Kläui, M.

{Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter}, 26(45), IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Tunable eigenmodes of coupled magnetic vortex oscillators

Hänze, M., Adolff, C. F., Weigand, M., Meier, G.

{Applied Physics Letters}, 104(18), American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Domain wall pinning in ultra-narrow electromigrated break junctions

Reeve, R. M., Loescher, A., Mawass, M.-A., Hoffmann-Vogel, R., Kläui, M.

{Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter}, 26(47), IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Highly effective hydrogen isotope separation in nanoporous metal-organic framworks with open metal sites: Direct measurement and theoretical analysis

Oh, H., Savchenko, I., Mavrandonakis, A., Heine, T., Hirscher, M.

{ACS Nano}, 8(1):761-770, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Stabilization of the dissipation-free current transport in inhomogeneous MgB2 thin films

Treiber, S., Stahl, C., Schütz, G., Soltan, S., Albrecht, J.

{Physica C}, 506, pages: 1-5, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Thermal conductivity of mechanically joined semiconducting/metal nanomembrane superlattices

Grimm, D., Wilson, R. B., Teshome, B., Gorantla, S., Rümmeli, M. H., Bublat, T., Zallo, E., Li, G., Cahill, D. G., Schmidt, O. G.

{Nano Letters}, 14(5):2387-2393, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Can DC motors directly drive flapping wings at high frequency and large wing strokes?

Campolo, D., Azhar, M., Lau, G., Sitti, M.

IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, 19(1):109-120, 2014 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Magnetic steering control of multi-cellular bio-hybrid microswimmers

Carlsen, R. W., Edwards, M. R., Zhuang, J., Pacoret, C., Sitti, M.

Lab on a Chip, 14(19):3850-3859, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014 (article)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Analytical modeling and experimental characterization of chemotaxis in serratia marcescens

Zhuang, J., Wei, G., Carlsen, R. W., Edwards, M. R., Marculescu, R., Bogdan, P., Sitti, M.

Physical Review E, 89(5):052704, American Physical Society, 2014 (article)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Robotic assembly of hydrogels for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

Tasoglu, S, Diller, E, Guven, S, Sitti, M, Demirci, U

In Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 8, pages: 181-182, 2014 (inproceedings)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Swimming characterization of Serratia marcescens for bio-hybrid micro-robotics

Edwards, M. R., Carlsen, R. W., Zhuang, J., Sitti, M.

Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics, 9(3):47-60, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Influence of Magnetic Fields on Magneto-Aerotaxis

Bennet, M., McCarthy, A., Fix, D., Edwards, M. R., Repp, F., Vach, P., Dunlop, J. W., Sitti, M., Buller, G. S., Klumpp, S., others,

PLoS One, 9(7):e101150, Public Library of Science, 2014 (article)

pi

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Robot Learning by Guided Self-Organization

Martius, G., Der, R., Herrmann, J. M.

In Guided Self-Organization: Inception, 9, pages: 223-260, Emergence, Complexity and Computation, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014 (incollection)

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Realization of a new Magnetic Scanning X-ray Microscope and Investigation of Landau Structures under Pulsed Field Excitation

Weigand, M.

Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart (und Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen), 2014 (phdthesis)

mms

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Role of the sample boundaries in the problem of dissipative magnetization dynamics

Fähnle, M., Slavin, A., Hertel, R.

{Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials}, 360, pages: 126-130, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Using magnetic coupling in bilayers of superconducting YBCO and soft-magnetic CoFeB to map supercurrent flow

Stahl, C., Walker, P., Treiber, S., Christiani, G., Schütz, G., Albrecht, J.

{EPL}, 106(2), 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Element-specific depth profile of magnetism and stoichiometry at the La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/BiFeO3 interface

Bertinshaw, J., Brück, S., Lott, D., Fritzsche, H., Khaydukov, Y., Soltwedel, O., Keller, T., Goering, E., Audehm, P., Cortie, D. L., Hutchison, W. D., Ramasse, Q. M., Arredondo, M., Maran, R., Nagarajan, V., Klose, F., Ulrich, C.

{Physical Review B}, 90(4), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Magnetic reflectometry of heterostructures (Topical Review)

Macke, S., Goering, E.

{Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter}, 26(36), IOP Publishing, Bristol, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Optimizing the fabrication of diffractive optical elements using a focused ion beam system

Vijayakumar, A., Eigenthaler, U., Keskinbora, K., Sridharan, G. M., Pramitha, V., Hirscher, M., Spatz, J. P., Bhattacharya, S.

{Proceedings of SPIE}, 9130, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Direct observation of internal vortex domain-wall dynamics

Stein, F.-U., Bocklage, L., Weigand, M., Meier, G.

{Physical Review B}, 89(2), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Synchronous precessional motion of multiple domain walls in a ferromagnetic nanowire by perpendicular field pulses

Kim, J., Mawass, M., Bisig, A., Krüger, B., Reeve, R. M., Schulz, T., Büttner, F., Yoon, J., You, C., Weigand, M., Stoll, H., Schütz, G., Swagten, H. J. M., Koopmans, B., Eisebitt, S., Kläui, M.

{Nature Communications}, 5, Nature Publishing Group, London, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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An autonomous manipulation system based on force control and optimization

Righetti, L., Kalakrishnan, M., Pastor, P., Binney, J., Kelly, J., Voorhies, R. C., Sukhatme, G. S., Schaal, S.

Autonomous Robots, 36(1-2):11-30, January 2014 (article)

Abstract
In this paper we present an architecture for autonomous manipulation. Our approach is based on the belief that contact interactions during manipulation should be exploited to improve dexterity and that optimizing motion plans is useful to create more robust and repeatable manipulation behaviors. We therefore propose an architecture where state of the art force/torque control and optimization-based motion planning are the core components of the system. We give a detailed description of the modules that constitute the complete system and discuss the challenges inherent to creating such a system. We present experimental results for several grasping and manipulation tasks to demonstrate the performance and robustness of our approach.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Occam’s Razor in sensorimotor learning

Genewein, T, Braun, D

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 281(1783):1-7, May 2014 (article)

Abstract
A large number of recent studies suggest that the sensorimotor system uses probabilistic models to predict its environment and makes inferences about unobserved variables in line with Bayesian statistics. One of the important features of Bayesian statistics is Occam's Razor—an inbuilt preference for simpler models when comparing competing models that explain some observed data equally well. Here, we test directly for Occam's Razor in sensorimotor control. We designed a sensorimotor task in which participants had to draw lines through clouds of noisy samples of an unobserved curve generated by one of two possible probabilistic models—a simple model with a large length scale, leading to smooth curves, and a complex model with a short length scale, leading to more wiggly curves. In training trials, participants were informed about the model that generated the stimulus so that they could learn the statistics of each model. In probe trials, participants were then exposed to ambiguous stimuli. In probe trials where the ambiguous stimulus could be fitted equally well by both models, we found that participants showed a clear preference for the simpler model. Moreover, we found that participants’ choice behaviour was quantitatively consistent with Bayesian Occam's Razor. We also show that participants’ drawn trajectories were similar to samples from the Bayesian predictive distribution over trajectories and significantly different from two non-probabilistic heuristics. In two control experiments, we show that the preference of the simpler model cannot be simply explained by a difference in physical effort or by a preference for curve smoothness. Our results suggest that Occam's Razor is a general behavioural principle already present during sensorimotor processing.

ei

DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Generalized Thompson sampling for sequential decision-making and causal inference

Ortega, PA, Braun, DA

Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling, 2(2):1-23, March 2014 (article)

Abstract
Purpose Sampling an action according to the probability that the action is believed to be the optimal one is sometimes called Thompson sampling. Methods Although mostly applied to bandit problems, Thompson sampling can also be used to solve sequential adaptive control problems, when the optimal policy is known for each possible environment. The predictive distribution over actions can then be constructed by a Bayesian superposition of the policies weighted by their posterior probability of being optimal. Results Here we discuss two important features of this approach. First, we show in how far such generalized Thompson sampling can be regarded as an optimal strategy under limited information processing capabilities that constrain the sampling complexity of the decision-making process. Second, we show how such Thompson sampling can be extended to solve causal inference problems when interacting with an environment in a sequential fashion. Conclusion In summary, our results suggest that Thompson sampling might not merely be a useful heuristic, but a principled method to address problems of adaptive sequential decision-making and causal inference.

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Learning and Exploration in a Novel Dimensionality-Reduction Task

Ebert, J, Kim, S, Schweighofer, N., Sternad, D, Schaal, S.

In Abstracts of Neural Control of Movement Conference (NCM 2009), Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2014 (inproceedings)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Liftoff of a Motor-Driven, Flapping-Wing Microaerial Vehicle Capable of Resonance

Hines, L., Campolo, D., Sitti, M.

IEEE Trans. on Robotics, 30(1):220-232, IEEE, 2014 (article)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Untethered micro-robotic coding of three-dimensional material composition

Tasoglu, S, Diller, E, Guven, S, Sitti, M, Demirci, U

Nature Communications, 5, pages: DOI-10, Nature Publishing Group, 2014 (article)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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The optimal shape of elastomer mushroom-like fibers for high and robust adhesion

Aksak, B., Sahin, K., Sitti, M.

Beilstein journal of nanotechnology, 5(1):630-638, Beilstein-Institut, 2014 (article)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Mechanically Switchable Elastomeric Microfibrillar Adhesive Surfaces for Transfer Printing

Sariola, V., Sitti, M.

Advanced Materials Interfaces, 1(4):1300159, 2014 (article)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Versatile non-contact micro-manipulation method using rotational flows locally induced by magnetic microrobots

Ye, Z., Edington, C., Russell, A. J., Sitti, M.

In Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), 2014 IEEE/ASME International Conference on, pages: 26-31, 2014 (inproceedings)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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MultiMo-Bat: A biologically inspired integrated jumping–gliding robot

Woodward, M. A., Sitti, M.

The International Journal of Robotics Research, 33(12):1511-1529, SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England, 2014 (article)

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Project Page [BibTex]

Project Page [BibTex]


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Learning of grasp selection based on shape-templates

Herzog, A., Pastor, P., Kalakrishnan, M., Righetti, L., Bohg, J., Asfour, T., Schaal, S.

Autonomous Robots, 36(1-2):51-65, January 2014 (article)

Abstract
The ability to grasp unknown objects still remains an unsolved problem in the robotics community. One of the challenges is to choose an appropriate grasp configuration, i.e., the 6D pose of the hand relative to the object and its finger configuration. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that is based on the assumption that similarly shaped objects can be grasped in a similar way. It is able to synthesize good grasp poses for unknown objects by finding the best matching object shape templates associated with previously demonstrated grasps. The grasp selection algorithm is able to improve over time by using the information of previous grasp attempts to adapt the ranking of the templates to new situations. We tested our approach on two different platforms, the Willow Garage PR2 and the Barrett WAM robot, which have very different hand kinematics. Furthermore, we compared our algorithm with other grasp planners and demonstrated its superior performance. The results presented in this paper show that the algorithm is able to find good grasp configurations for a large set of unknown objects from a relatively small set of demonstrations, and does improve its performance over time.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]


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Magnetic field distribution and characteristic fields of the vortex lattice for a clean superconducting niobium sample in an external field applied along a three-fold axis

Yaouanc, A., Maisuradze, A., Nakai, N., Machida, K., Khasanov, R., Amato, A., Biswas, P. K., Baines, C., Herlach, D., Henes, Rolf, Keppler, P., Keller, H.

{Physical Review B}, 89(18), American Physical Society, Woodbury, NY, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Experimental assessment of Physical upper limit for hydrogen storage capacity at 20 K in densified MIL-101 monoliths

Oh, H., Lupu, D., Blanita, G., Hirscher, M.

{RSC Advances}, 4(6):2648-2651, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Strengthening zones in the Co matrix of WC-Co cemented carbides

Konyashin, I., Lachmann, F., Ries, B., Mazilkin, A. A., Straumal, B. B., Kübel, C., Llanes, L., Baretzky, B.

{Scripta Materialia}, 83, pages: 17-20, Pergamon, Tarrytown, NY, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Multilayer Fresnel zone plates for high energy radiation resolve 21 nm features at 1.2 keV

Keskinbora, K., Robisch, A., Mayer, M., Sanli, U., Grévent, C., Wolter, C., Weigand, M., Szeghalmi, A., Knez, M., Salditt, T., Schütz, G.

{Optics Express}, 22(15):18440-18453, Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Interplay of linker functionalization and hydrogen adsorption in the metal-organic framework MIL-101

Szilágyi, P. A., Weinrauch, I., Oh, H., Hirscher, M., Juan-Alcaniz, J., Serra-Crespo, P., de Respinis, M., Trzesniewski, B. J., Kapteijn, F., Geerlings, H., Gascon, J., Dam, B., Grzech, A., van de Krol, R.

{The Journal of Physical Chemistry C}, 118(34):19572-19579, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Application of magneto-optical Kerr effect to first-order reversal curve measurements

Gräfe, J., Schmidt, M., Audehm, P., Schütz, G., Goering, E.

{Review of Scientific Instruments}, 85, American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, N.Y. [etc.], 2014 (article)

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DOI Project Page [BibTex]

DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Efficient focusing of 8 keV X-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling. Erratum

Mayer, M., Keskinbora, K., Grévent, C., Szeghalmi, A., Knez, M., Weigand, M., Snigirev, A., Snigireva, I., Schütz, G.

{Journal of Synchrotron Radiation}, 640, pages: 640-640, Published for the International Union of Crystallography by Munksgaard, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


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Low-amplitude magnetic vortex core reversal by non-linear interaction between azimuthal spin waves and the vortex gyromode

Sproll, M., Noske, M., Bauer, H., Kammerer, M., Gangwar, A., Dieterle, G., Weigand, M., Stoll, H., Woltersdorf, G., Back, C. H., Schütz, G.

{Applied Physics Letters}, 104(1), American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 2014 (article)

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DOI [BibTex]

DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl simulated annealing
Simulated Annealing

Gall, J.

In Encyclopedia of Computer Vision, pages: 737-741, 0, (Editors: Ikeuchi, K. ), Springer Verlag, 2014, to appear (inbook)

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[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Thumb xl ijcvflow2
A Quantitative Analysis of Current Practices in Optical Flow Estimation and the Principles behind Them

Sun, D., Roth, S., Black, M. J.

International Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV), 106(2):115-137, 2014 (article)

Abstract
The accuracy of optical flow estimation algorithms has been improving steadily as evidenced by results on the Middlebury optical flow benchmark. The typical formulation, however, has changed little since the work of Horn and Schunck. We attempt to uncover what has made recent advances possible through a thorough analysis of how the objective function, the optimization method, and modern implementation practices influence accuracy. We discover that "classical'' flow formulations perform surprisingly well when combined with modern optimization and implementation techniques. One key implementation detail is the median filtering of intermediate flow fields during optimization. While this improves the robustness of classical methods it actually leads to higher energy solutions, meaning that these methods are not optimizing the original objective function. To understand the principles behind this phenomenon, we derive a new objective function that formalizes the median filtering heuristic. This objective function includes a non-local smoothness term that robustly integrates flow estimates over large spatial neighborhoods. By modifying this new term to include information about flow and image boundaries we develop a method that can better preserve motion details. To take advantage of the trend towards video in wide-screen format, we further introduce an asymmetric pyramid downsampling scheme that enables the estimation of longer range horizontal motions. The methods are evaluated on Middlebury, MPI Sintel, and KITTI datasets using the same parameter settings.

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pdf full text code [BibTex]

pdf full text code [BibTex]


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Balancing experiments on a torque-controlled humanoid with hierarchical inverse dynamics

Herzog, A., Righetti, L., Grimminger, F., Pastor, P., Schaal, S.

In 2014 IEEE/RSJ Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pages: 981-988, IEEE, Chicago, USA, 2014 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Recently several hierarchical inverse dynamics controllers based on cascades of quadratic programs have been proposed for application on torque controlled robots. They have important theoretical benefits but have never been implemented on a torque controlled robot where model inaccuracies and real-time computation requirements can be problematic. In this contribution we present an experimental evaluation of these algorithms in the context of balance control for a humanoid robot. The presented experiments demonstrate the applicability of the approach under real robot conditions (i.e. model uncertainty, estimation errors, etc). We propose a simplification of the optimization problem that allows us to decrease computation time enough to implement it in a fast torque control loop. We implement a momentum-based balance controller which shows robust performance in face of unknown disturbances, even when the robot is standing on only one foot. In a second experiment, a tracking task is evaluated to demonstrate the performance of the controller with more complicated hierarchies. Our results show that hierarchical inverse dynamics controllers can be used for feedback control of humanoid robots and that momentum-based balance control can be efficiently implemented on a real robot.

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link (url) DOI [BibTex]

link (url) DOI [BibTex]