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2010


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Comparative Quantitative Evaluation of MR-Based Attenuation Correction Methods in Combined Brain PET/MR

Mantlik, F., Hofmann, M., Bezrukov, I., Kolb, A., Beyer, T., Reimold, M., Pichler, B., Schölkopf, B.

2010(M08-4), 2010 Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS-MIC), November 2010 (talk)

Abstract
Combined PET/MR provides at the same time molecular and functional imaging as well as excellent soft tissue contrast. It does not allow one to directly measure the attenuation properties of scanned tissues, despite the fact that accurate attenuation maps are necessary for quantitative PET imaging. Several methods have therefore been proposed for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). So far, they have only been evaluated on data acquired from separate MR and PET scanners. We evaluated several MR-AC methods on data from 10 patients acquired on a combined BrainPET/MR scanner. This allowed the consideration of specific PET/MR issues, such as the RF coil that attenuates and scatters 511 keV gammas. We evaluated simple MR thresholding methods as well as atlas and machine learning-based MR-AC. CT-based AC served as gold standard reference. To comprehensively evaluate the MR-AC accuracy, we used RoIs from 2 anatomic brain atlases with different levels of detail. Visual inspection of the PET images indicated that even the basic FLASH threshold MR-AC may be sufficient for several applications. Using a UTE sequence for bone prediction in MR-based thresholding occasionally led to false prediction of bone tissue inside the brain, causing a significant overestimation of PET activity. Although it yielded a lower mean underestimation of activity, it exhibited the highest variance of all methods. The atlas averaging approach had a smaller mean error, but showed high maximum overestimation on the RoIs of the more detailed atlas. The Nave Bayes and Atlas-Patch MR-AC yielded the smallest variance, and the Atlas-Patch also showed the smallest mean error. In conclusion, Atlas-based AC using only MR information on the BrainPET/MR yields a high level of accuracy that is sufficient for clinical quantitative imaging requirements. The Atlas-Patch approach was superior to alternative atlas-based methods, yielding a quantification error below 10% for all RoIs except very small ones.

ei

[BibTex]

2010


[BibTex]


Thumb xl screen shot 2015 08 23 at 15.52.25
Enhanced Visual Scene Understanding through Human-Robot Dialog

Johnson-Roberson, M., Bohg, J., Kragic, D., Skantze, G., Gustafson, J., Carlson, R.

In Proceedings of AAAI 2010 Fall Symposium: Dialog with Robots, November 2010 (inproceedings)

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pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Spatio-Spectral Remote Sensing Image Classification With Graph Kernels

Camps-Valls, G., Shervashidze, N., Borgwardt, K.

IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 7(4):741-745, October 2010 (article)

Abstract
This letter presents a graph kernel for spatio-spectral remote sensing image classification with support vector machines (SVMs). The method considers higher order relations in the neighborhood (beyond pairwise spatial relations) to iteratively compute a kernel matrix for SVM learning. The proposed kernel is easy to compute and constitutes a powerful alternative to existing approaches. The capabilities of the method are illustrated in several multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing images acquired over both urban and agricultural areas.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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Causal Inference Using the Algorithmic Markov Condition

Janzing, D., Schölkopf, B.

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 56(10):5168-5194, October 2010 (article)

Abstract
Inferring the causal structure that links $n$ observables is usually based upon detecting statistical dependences and choosing simple graphs that make the joint measure Markovian. Here we argue why causal inference is also possible when the sample size is one. We develop a theory how to generate causal graphs explaining similarities between single objects. To this end, we replace the notion of conditional stochastic independence in the causal Markov condition with the vanishing of conditional algorithmic mutual information and describe the corresponding causal inference rules. We explain why a consistent reformulation of causal inference in terms of algorithmic complexity implies a new inference principle that takes into account also the complexity of conditional probability densities, making it possible to select among Markov equivalent causal graphs. This insight provides a theoretical foundation of a heuristic principle proposed in earlier work. We also sketch some ideas on how to replace Kolmogorov complexity with decidable complexity criteria. This can be seen as an algorithmic analog of replacing the empirically undecidable question of statistical independence with practical independence tests that are based on implicit or explicit assumptions on the underlying distribution.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Recurrent Policy Gradients

Wierstra, D., Förster, A., Peters, J., Schmidhuber, J.

Logic Journal of the IGPL, 18(5):620-634, October 2010 (article)

Abstract
Reinforcement learning for partially observable Markov decision problems (POMDPs) is a challenge as it requires policies with an internal state. Traditional approaches suffer significantly from this shortcoming and usually make strong assumptions on the problem domain such as perfect system models, state-estimators and a Markovian hidden system. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) offer a natural framework for dealing with policy learning using hidden state and require only few limiting assumptions. As they can be trained well using gradient descent, they are suited for policy gradient approaches. In this paper, we present a policy gradient method, the Recurrent Policy Gradient which constitutes a model-free reinforcement learning method. It is aimed at training limited-memory stochastic policies on problems which require long-term memories of past observations. The approach involves approximating a policy gradient for a recurrent neural network by backpropagating return-weighted characteristic eligibilities through time. Using a ‘‘Long Short-Term Memory’’ RNN architecture, we are able to outperform previous RL methods on three important benchmark tasks. Furthermore, we show that using history-dependent baselines helps reducing estimation variance significantly, thus enabling our approach to tackle more challenging, highly stochastic environments.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Learning as a key ability for Human-Friendly Robots

Peters, J., Kober, J., Mülling, K., Krömer, O., Nguyen-Tuong, D., Wang, Z., Rodriguez Gomez, M., Grosse-Wentrup, M.

In pages: 1-2, 3rd Workshop for Young Researchers on Human-Friendly Robotics (HFR), October 2010 (inproceedings)

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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Closing the sensorimotor loop: Haptic feedback facilitates decoding of arm movement imagery

Gomez Rodriguez, M., Peters, J., Hill, J., Schölkopf, B., Gharabaghi, A., Grosse-Wentrup, M.

In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC 2010), pages: 121-126, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC), October 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) in combination with robot-assisted physical therapy may become a valuable tool for neurorehabilitation of patients with severe hemiparetic syndromes due to cerebrovascular brain damage (stroke) and other neurological conditions. A key aspect of this approach is reestablishing the disrupted sensorimotor feedback loop, i.e., determining the intended movement using a BCI and helping a human with impaired motor function to move the arm using a robot. It has not been studied yet, however, how artificially closing the sensorimotor feedback loop affects the BCI decoding performance. In this article, we investigate this issue in six healthy subjects, and present evidence that haptic feedback facilitates the decoding of arm movement intention. The results provide evidence of the feasibility of future rehabilitative efforts combining robot-assisted physical therapy with BCIs.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Probabilistic Assignment of Chemical Shift Data for Semi-Automatic Amino Acid Recognition

Hooge, J.

11(10):30, 11th Conference of Junior Neuroscientists of T{\"u}bingen (NeNa), October 2010 (poster)

Abstract
manner. First the backbone resonances are assigned. This is usually achieved from sequential information provided by three chemical shifts: CA, CB and C’. Once the sequence is solved, the second assignment step takes place. For this purpose, the CA-CB and HA chemical shifts are used as a start point for assignment of the side chain resonances, thus connecting the backbone resonances to their respective side chains. This strategy is unfortunately limited by the size of the protein due to increasing signal overlap and missing signals. Therefore, amino acid recognition is in many cases not possible as the CA-CB chemical shift pattern is not sufficient to discriminate between the 20 amino acids. As a result, the first step of the strategy described above remains tedious and time consuming. The combination of modern NMR techniques with new spectrometers now provide information that was not always accessible in the past, due to sensitivity problems. These experiments can be applied efficiently to measure a protein size up to 45 kDa and furthermore provide a unique combination of sequential carbon spin system information. The assignment process can thus benefit from a maximum knowledge input, containing âallâ backbone and side chain chemical shifts as well as an immediate amino acid recognition from the side chain spin system. We propose to extend the software PASTA (Protein ASsignment by Threshold Accepting) to achieve a general sequential assignment of backbone and side-chain resonances in a semi- to fullautomatic per-residue approach. PASTA will offer the possibility to achieve the sequential assignment using any kind of chemical shifts (carbons and/or protons) that can provide sequential information combined with an amino acid recognition feature based on carbon spin system analysis.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Learning Probabilistic Discriminative Models of Grasp Affordances under Limited Supervision

Erkan, A., Kroemer, O., Detry, R., Altun, Y., Piater, J., Peters, J.

In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2010), pages: 1586-1591, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), October 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of learning and efficiently representing discriminative probabilistic models of object-specific grasp affordances particularly when the number of labeled grasps is extremely limited. The proposed method does not require an explicit 3D model but rather learns an implicit manifold on which it defines a probability distribution over grasp affordances. We obtain hypothetical grasp configurations from visual descriptors that are associated with the contours of an object. While these hypothetical configurations are abundant, labeled configurations are very scarce as these are acquired via time-costly experiments carried out by the robot. Kernel logistic regression (KLR) via joint kernel maps is trained to map the hypothesis space of grasps into continuous class-conditional probability values indicating their achievability. We propose a soft-supervised extension of KLR and a framework to combine the merits of semi-supervised and active learning approaches to tackle the scarcity of labeled grasps. Experimental evaluation shows that combining active and semi-supervised learning is favorable in the existence of an oracle. Furthermore, semi-supervised learning outperforms supervised learning, particularly when the labeled data is very limited.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Generalizing Demonstrated Actions in Manipulation Tasks

Kroemer, O., Detry, R., Piater, J., Peters, J.

IROS 2010 Workshop on Grasp Planning and Task Learning by Imitation, 2010, pages: 1, October 2010 (poster)

Abstract
Programming-by-demonstration promises to significantly reduce the burden of coding robots to perform new tasks. However, service robots will be presented with a variety of different situations that were not specifically demonstrated to it. In such cases, the robot must autonomously generalize its learned motions to these new situations. We propose a system that can generalize movements to new target locations and even new objects. The former is achieved by using a task-specific coordinate system together with dynamical systems motor primitives. Generalizing actions to new objects is a more complex problem, which we solve by treating it as a continuum-armed bandits problem. Using the bandits framework, we can efficiently optimize the learned action for a specific object. The proposed method was implemented on a real robot and succesfully adapted the grasping action to three different objects. Although we focus on grasping as an example of a task, the proposed methods are much more widely applicable to robot manipulation tasks.

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


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Discriminative frequent subgraph mining with optimality guarantees

Thoma, M., Cheng, H., Gretton, A., Han, J., Kriegel, H., Smola, A., Song, L., Yu, P., Yan, X., Borgwardt, K.

Journal of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, 3(5):302–318, October 2010 (article)

Abstract
The goal of frequent subgraph mining is to detect subgraphs that frequently occur in a dataset of graphs. In classification settings, one is often interested in discovering discriminative frequent subgraphs, whose presence or absence is indicative of the class membership of a graph. In this article, we propose an approach to feature selection on frequent subgraphs, called CORK, that combines two central advantages. First, it optimizes a submodular quality criterion, which means that we can yield a near-optimal solution using greedy feature selection. Second, our submodular quality function criterion can be integrated into gSpan, the state-of-the-art tool for frequent subgraph mining, and help to prune the search space for discriminative frequent subgraphs even during frequent subgraph mining.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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A biomimetic approach to robot table tennis

Mülling, K., Kober, J., Peters, J.

In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2010), pages: 1921-1926, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), October 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Although human beings see and move slower than table tennis or baseball robots, they manage to outperform such robot systems. One important aspect of this better performance is the human movement generation. In this paper, we study trajectory generation for table tennis from a biomimetic point of view. Our focus lies on generating efficient stroke movements capable of mastering variations in the environmental conditions, such as changing ball speed, spin and position. We study table tennis from a human motor control point of view. To make headway towards this goal, we construct a trajectory generator for a single stroke using the discrete movement stages hypothesis and the virtual hitting point hypothesis to create a model that produces a human-like stroke movement. We verify the functionality of the trajectory generator for a single forehand stroke both in a simulation and using a real Barrett WAM.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


Thumb xl screen shot 2015 08 23 at 15.18.17
Scene Representation and Object Grasping Using Active Vision

Gratal, X., Bohg, J., Björkman, M., Kragic, D.

In IROS’10 Workshop on Defining and Solving Realistic Perception Problems in Personal Robotics, October 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Object grasping and manipulation pose major challenges for perception and control and require rich interaction between these two fields. In this paper, we concentrate on the plethora of perceptual problems that have to be solved before a robot can be moved in a controlled way to pick up an object. A vision system is presented that integrates a number of different computational processes, e.g. attention, segmentation, recognition or reconstruction to incrementally build up a representation of the scene suitable for grasping and manipulation of objects. Our vision system is equipped with an active robotic head and a robot arm. This embodiment enables the robot to perform a number of different actions like saccading, fixating, and grasping. By applying these actions, the robot can incrementally build a scene representation and use it for interaction. We demonstrate our system in a scenario for picking up known objects from a table top. We also show the system’s extendibility towards grasping of unknown and familiar objects.

am

video pdf slides [BibTex]

video pdf slides [BibTex]


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Strategies for multi-modal scene exploration

Bohg, J., Johnson-Roberson, M., Björkman, M., Kragic, D.

In Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pages: 4509-4515, October 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
We propose a method for multi-modal scene exploration where initial object hypothesis formed by active visual segmentation are confirmed and augmented through haptic exploration with a robotic arm. We update the current belief about the state of the map with the detection results and predict yet unknown parts of the map with a Gaussian Process. We show that through the integration of different sensor modalities, we achieve a more complete scene model. We also show that the prediction of the scene structure leads to a valid scene representation even if the map is not fully traversed. Furthermore, we propose different exploration strategies and evaluate them both in simulation and on our robotic platform.

am

video pdf DOI Project Page [BibTex]

video pdf DOI Project Page [BibTex]


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Attention-based active 3D point cloud segmentation

Johnson-Roberson, M., Bohg, J., Björkman, M., Kragic, D.

In Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pages: 1165-1170, October 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
In this paper we present a framework for the segmentation of multiple objects from a 3D point cloud. We extend traditional image segmentation techniques into a full 3D representation. The proposed technique relies on a state-of-the-art min-cut framework to perform a fully 3D global multi-class labeling in a principled manner. Thereby, we extend our previous work in which a single object was actively segmented from the background. We also examine several seeding methods to bootstrap the graphical model-based energy minimization and these methods are compared over challenging scenes. All results are generated on real-world data gathered with an active vision robotic head. We present quantitive results over aggregate sets as well as visual results on specific examples.

am

pdf DOI [BibTex]

pdf DOI [BibTex]


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Bayesian Inference and Experimental Design for Large Generalised Linear Models

Nickisch, H.

Biologische Kybernetik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, September 2010 (phdthesis)

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


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Inhomogeneous Positron Range Effects in High Magnetic Fields might Cause Severe Artefacts in PET/MRI

Kolb, A., Hofmann, M., Sauter, A., Liu, C., Eriksson, L., Pichler, B.

(0305B), 2010 World Molecular Imaging Congress (WMIC), September 2010 (poster)

Abstract
The combination of PET and MRI is an emerging field of current research. It is known that the positron range is shortened in high magnetic fields (MF), leading to an improved resolution in PET images. Interestingly, only the fraction of positron range (PR) orthogonal to the MF is reduced and the fraction along the MF is not affected and yields to a non-isotropic count distribution. We measured the PR effect with PET isotopes like F-18, Cu-64, C-11, N-13 and Ga-68. A piece of paper (1 cm2) was soaked with each isotope and placed in the cFOV of a clinical 3T BrainPET/MR scanner. A polyethylene board (PE) was placed as a positron (β+) stopper with an axial distance of 3 cm from the soaked paper. The area under the peaks of one pixel wide profiles along the z-axis in coronal images was compared. Based on these measurements we confirmed our data in organic tissue. A larynx/trachea and lung of a butchered swine were injected with a mixture of NiSO4 for T1 MRI signals and Ga-68, simulating tumor lesions in the respiratory tract. The trachea/larynx were aligned in 35° to the MF lines and a small mass lesion was inserted to imitate a primary tracheal tumor whereas the larynx was injected submucosally in the lower medial part of the epiglottis. Reconstructed PET data show that the annihilated ratio of β+ at the origin position and in the PE depends on the isotope energy and the direction of the MF. The annihilation ratios of the source and PE are 52.4/47.6 (F-18), 57.5/42.5 (Cu-64), 43.7/56.7 (C-11), 31.1/68.9 (N-13) and 14.9/85.1 (Ga-68). In the swine larynx measurement, an artefact with approximately 39% of the lesion activity formed along MF lines 3cm away from the original injected position (fig.1). The data of the trachea showed two shine artefacts with a symmetric alignment along the MF lines. About 58% of the positrons annihilated at the lesion and 21% formed each artefact. The PR effects areminor in tissue of higher or equal density to water (0.096 cm-1). However, the effect is severe in low density tissue or air and might lead to misinterpretation of clinical data.

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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Combining active learning and reactive control for robot grasping

Kroemer, O., Detry, R., Piater, J., Peters, J.

Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 58(9):1105-1116, September 2010 (article)

Abstract
Grasping an object is a task that inherently needs to be treated in a hybrid fashion. The system must decide both where and how to grasp the object. While selecting where to grasp requires learning about the object as a whole, the execution only needs to reactively adapt to the context close to the grasp’s location. We propose a hierarchical controller that reflects the structure of these two sub-problems, and attempts to learn solutions that work for both. A hybrid architecture is employed by the controller to make use of various machine learning methods that can cope with the large amount of uncertainty inherent to the task. The controller’s upper level selects where to grasp the object using a reinforcement learner, while the lower level comprises an imitation learner and a vision-based reactive controller to determine appropriate grasping motions. The resulting system is able to quickly learn good grasps of a novel object in an unstructured environment, by executing smooth reaching motions and preshapin g the hand depending on the object’s geometry. The system was evaluated both in simulation and on a real robot.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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A PAC-Bayesian Analysis of Graph Clustering and Pairwise Clustering

Seldin, Y.

Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, September 2010 (techreport)

Abstract
We formulate weighted graph clustering as a prediction problem: given a subset of edge weights we analyze the ability of graph clustering to predict the remaining edge weights. This formulation enables practical and theoretical comparison of different approaches to graph clustering as well as comparison of graph clustering with other possible ways to model the graph. We adapt the PAC-Bayesian analysis of co-clustering (Seldin and Tishby, 2008; Seldin, 2009) to derive a PAC-Bayesian generalization bound for graph clustering. The bound shows that graph clustering should optimize a trade-off between empirical data fit and the mutual information that clusters preserve on the graph nodes. A similar trade-off derived from information-theoretic considerations was already shown to produce state-of-the-art results in practice (Slonim et al., 2005; Yom-Tov and Slonim, 2009). This paper supports the empirical evidence by providing a better theoretical foundation, suggesting formal generalization guarantees, and offering a more accurate way to deal with finite sample issues. We derive a bound minimization algorithm and show that it provides good results in real-life problems and that the derived PAC-Bayesian bound is reasonably tight.

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


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Weakly-Paired Maximum Covariance Analysis for Multimodal Dimensionality Reduction and Transfer Learning

Lampert, C., Kroemer, O.

In Computer Vision – ECCV 2010, pages: 566-579, (Editors: Daniilidis, K. , P. Maragos, N. Paragios), Springer, Berlin, Germany, 11th European Conference on Computer Vision, September 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
We study the problem of multimodal dimensionality reduction assuming that data samples can be missing at training time, and not all data modalities may be present at application time. Maximum covariance analysis, as a generalization of PCA, has many desirable properties, but its application to practical problems is limited by its need for perfectly paired data. We overcome this limitation by a latent variable approach that allows working with weakly paired data and is still able to efficiently process large datasets using standard numerical routines. The resulting weakly paired maximum covariance analysis often finds better representations than alternative methods, as we show in two exemplary tasks: texture discrimination and transfer learning.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Simple algorithmic modifications for improving blind steganalysis performance

Schwamberger, V., Franz, M.

In Proceedings of the 12th ACM workshop on Multimedia and Security (MM&Sec 2010), pages: 225-230, (Editors: Campisi, P. , J. Dittmann, S. Craver), ACM Press, New York, NY, USA, 12th ACM Workshop on Multimedia and Security (MM&Sec), September 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Most current algorithms for blind steganalysis of images are based on a two-stages approach: First, features are extracted in order to reduce dimensionality and to highlight potential manipulations; second, a classifier trained on pairs of clean and stego images finds a decision rule for these features to detect stego images. Thereby, vector components might vary significantly in their values, hence normalization of the feature vectors is crucial. Furthermore, most classifiers contain free parameters, and an automatic model selection step has to be carried out for adapting these parameters. However, the commonly used cross-validation destroys some information needed by the classifier because of the arbitrary splitting of image pairs (stego and clean version) in the training set. In this paper, we propose simple modifications of normalization and for standard cross-validation. In our experiments, we show that these methods lead to a significant improvement of the standard blind steganalyzer of Lyu and Farid.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Nonparametric Regression between General Riemannian Manifolds

Steinke, F., Hein, M., Schölkopf, B.

SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences, 3(3):527-563, September 2010 (article)

Abstract
We study nonparametric regression between Riemannian manifolds based on regularized empirical risk minimization. Regularization functionals for mappings between manifolds should respect the geometry of input and output manifold and be independent of the chosen parametrization of the manifolds. We define and analyze the three most simple regularization functionals with these properties and present a rather general scheme for solving the resulting optimization problem. As application examples we discuss interpolation on the sphere, fingerprint processing, and correspondence computations between three-dimensional surfaces. We conclude with characterizing interesting and sometimes counterintuitive implications and new open problems that are specific to learning between Riemannian manifolds and are not encountered in multivariate regression in Euclidean space.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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Semi-supervised Remote Sensing Image Classification via Maximum Entropy

Erkan, A., Camps-Valls, G., Altun, Y.

In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP 2010), pages: 313-318, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2010 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP), September 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Remote sensing image segmentation requires multi-category classification typically with limited number of labeled training samples. While semi-supervised learning (SSL) has emerged as a sub-field of machine learning to tackle the scarcity of labeled samples, most SSL algorithms to date have had trade-offs in terms of scalability and/or applicability to multi-categorical data. In this paper, we evaluate semi-supervised logistic regression (SLR), a recent information theoretic semi-supervised algorithm, for remote sensing image classification problems. SLR is a probabilistic discriminative classifier and a specific instance of the generalized maximum entropy framework with a convex loss function. Moreover, the method is inherently multi-class and easy to implement. These characteristics make SLR a strong alternative to the widely used semi-supervised variants of SVM for the segmentation of remote sensing images. We demonstrate the competitiveness of SLR in multispectral, hyperspectral and radar image classifica tion.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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MLSP Competition, 2010: Description of first place method

Leiva, JM., Martens, SMM.

In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP 2010), pages: 112-113, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2010 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP), September 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Our winning approach to the 2010 MLSP Competition is based on a generative method for P300-based BCI decoding, successfully applied to visual spellers. Here, generative has a double meaning. On the one hand, we work with a probability density model of the data given the target/non target labeling, as opposed to discriminative (e.g. SVM-based) methods. On the other hand, the natural consequence of this approach is a decoding based on comparing the observation to templates generated from the data.

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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Sparse nonnegative matrix approximation: new formulations and algorithms

Tandon, R., Sra, S.

(193), Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, September 2010 (techreport)

Abstract
We introduce several new formulations for sparse nonnegative matrix approximation. Subsequently, we solve these formulations by developing generic algorithms. Further, to help selecting a particular sparse formulation, we briefly discuss the interpretation of each formulation. Finally, preliminary experiments are presented to illustrate the behavior of our formulations and algorithms.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Multiframe Blind Deconvolution, Super-Resolution, and Saturation Correction via Incremental EM

Harmeling, S., Sra, S., Hirsch, M., Schölkopf, B.

In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP 2010), pages: 3313-3316, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 17th International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), September 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
We formulate the multiframe blind deconvolution problem in an incremental expectation maximization (EM) framework. Beyond deconvolution, we show how to use the same framework to address: (i) super-resolution despite noise and unknown blurring; (ii) saturationcorrection of overexposed pixels that confound image restoration. The abundance of data allows us to address both of these without using explicit image or blur priors. The end result is a simple but effective algorithm with no hyperparameters. We apply this algorithm to real-world images from astronomy and to super resolution tasks: for both, our algorithm yields increased resolution and deconvolved images simultaneously.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Gaussian Mixture Modeling with Gaussian Process Latent Variable Models

Nickisch, H., Rasmussen, C.

In Pattern Recognition, pages: 271-282, (Editors: Goesele, M. , S. Roth, A. Kuijper, B. Schiele, K. Schindler), Springer, Berlin, Germany, 32nd Annual Symposium of the German Association for Pattern Recognition (DAGM), September 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Density modeling is notoriously difficult for high dimensional data. One approach to the problem is to search for a lower dimensional manifold which captures the main characteristics of the data. Recently, the Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model (GPLVM) has successfully been used to find low dimensional manifolds in a variety of complex data. The GPLVM consists of a set of points in a low dimensional latent space, and a stochastic map to the observed space. We show how it can be interpreted as a density model in the observed space. However, the GPLVM is not trained as a density model and therefore yields bad density estimates. We propose a new training strategy and obtain improved generalisation performance and better density estimates in comparative evaluations on several benchmark data sets.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Robust nonparametric detection of objects in noisy images

Langovoy, M., Wittich, O.

(2010-049), EURANDOM, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, September 2010 (techreport)

Abstract
We propose a novel statistical hypothesis testing method for detection of objects in noisy images. The method uses results from percolation theory and random graph theory. We present an algorithm that allows to detect objects of unknown shapes in the presence of nonparametric noise of unknown level and of unknown distribution. No boundary shape constraints are imposed on the object, only a weak bulk condition for the object's interior is required. The algorithm has linear complexity and exponential accuracy and is appropriate for real-time systems. In this paper, we develop further the mathematical formalism of our method and explore im- portant connections to the mathematical theory of percolation and statistical physics. We prove results on consistency and algorithmic complexity of our testing procedure. In addition, we address not only an asymptotic behavior of the method, but also a nite sample performance of our test.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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A Nearest Neighbor Data Structure for Graphics Hardware

Cayton, L.

In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Accelerating Data Management Systems Using Modern Processor and Storage Architectures (ADMS 2010), pages: 1-6, First International Workshop on Accelerating Data Management Systems Using Modern Processor and Storage Architectures (ADMS), September 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Nearest neighbor search is a core computational task in database systems and throughout data analysis. It is also a major computational bottleneck, and hence an enormous body of research has been devoted to data structures and algorithms for accelerating the task. Recent advances in graphics hardware provide tantalizing speedups on a variety of tasks and suggest an alternate approach to the problem: simply run brute force search on a massively parallel sys- tem. In this paper we marry the approaches with a novel data structure that can effectively make use of parallel systems such as graphics cards. The architectural complexities of graphics hardware - the high degree of parallelism, the small amount of memory relative to instruction throughput, and the single instruction, multiple data design- present significant challenges for data structure design. Furthermore, the brute force approach applies perfectly to graphics hardware, leading one to question whether an intelligent algorithm or data structure can even hope to outperform this basic approach. Despite these challenges and misgivings, we demonstrate that our data structure - termed a Random Ball Cover - provides significant speedups over the GPU- based brute force approach.

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


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Method and device for recovering a digital image from a sequence of observed digital images

Harmeling, S., Hirsch, M., Sra, S., Schölkopf, B.

United States Provisional Patent Application, No 61387025, September 2010 (patent)

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


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Method for feature selection in a support vector machine using feature ranking

Weston, J., Elisseeff, A., Schölkopf, B., Pérez-Cruz, F., Guyon, I.

United States Patent, No 7805388, September 2010 (patent)

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Thumb xl screen shot 2012 12 01 at 2.37.12 pm
Visibility Maps for Improving Seam Carving

Mansfield, A., Gehler, P., Van Gool, L., Rother, C.

In Media Retargeting Workshop, European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), september 2010 (inproceedings)

ps

webpage pdf slides supplementary code [BibTex]

webpage pdf slides supplementary code [BibTex]


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A 2D human body model dressed in eigen clothing

Guan, P., Freifeld, O., Black, M. J.

In European Conf. on Computer Vision, (ECCV), pages: 285-298, Springer-Verlag, September 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Detection, tracking, segmentation and pose estimation of people in monocular images are widely studied. Two-dimensional models of the human body are extensively used, however, they are typically fairly crude, representing the body either as a rough outline or in terms of articulated geometric primitives. We describe a new 2D model of the human body contour that combines an underlying naked body with a low-dimensional clothing model. The naked body is represented as a Contour Person that can take on a wide variety of poses and body shapes. Clothing is represented as a deformation from the underlying body contour. This deformation is learned from training examples using principal component analysis to produce eigen clothing. We find that the statistics of clothing deformations are skewed and we model the a priori probability of these deformations using a Beta distribution. The resulting generative model captures realistic human forms in monocular images and is used to infer 2D body shape and pose under clothing. We also use the coefficients of the eigen clothing to recognize different categories of clothing on dressed people. The method is evaluated quantitatively on synthetic and real images and achieves better accuracy than previous methods for estimating body shape under clothing.

ps

pdf data poster Project Page [BibTex]

pdf data poster Project Page [BibTex]


Thumb xl teaser eccvw
Analyzing and Evaluating Markerless Motion Tracking Using Inertial Sensors

Baak, A., Helten, T., Müller, M., Pons-Moll, G., Rosenhahn, B., Seidel, H.

In European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV Workshops), September 2010 (inproceedings)

ps

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


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Statistical image analysis and percolation theory

Davies, P., Langovoy, M., Wittich, O.

73rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (IMS), August 2010 (talk)

Abstract
We develop a novel method for detection of signals and reconstruction of images in the presence of random noise. The method uses results from percolation theory. We specifically address the problem of detection of objects of unknown shapes in the case of nonparametric noise. The noise density is unknown and can be heavy-tailed. We view the object detection problem as hypothesis testing for discrete statistical inverse problems. We present an algorithm that allows to detect objects of various shapes in noisy images. We prove results on consistency and algorithmic complexity of our procedures.

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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Large Scale Variational Inference and Experimental Design for Sparse Generalized Linear Models

Seeger, M., Nickisch, H.

Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, August 2010 (techreport)

Abstract
Many problems of low-level computer vision and image processing, such as denoising, deconvolution, tomographic reconstruction or super-resolution, can be addressed by maximizing the posterior distribution of a sparse linear model (SLM). We show how higher-order Bayesian decision-making problems, such as optimizing image acquisition in magnetic resonance scanners, can be addressed by querying the SLM posterior covariance, unrelated to the density's mode. We propose a scalable algorithmic framework, with which SLM posteriors over full, high-resolution images can be approximated for the first time, solving a variational optimization problem which is convex iff posterior mode finding is convex. These methods successfully drive the optimization of sampling trajectories for real-world magnetic resonance imaging through Bayesian experimental design, which has not been attempted before. Our methodology provides new insight into similarities and differences between sparse reconstruction and approximate Bayesian inference, and has important implications for compressive sensing of real-world images.

ei

Web [BibTex]


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Hybrid PET/MRI of Intracranial Masses: Initial Experiences and Comparison to PET/CT

Boss, A., Bisdas, S., Kolb, A., Hofmann, M., Ernemann, U., Claussen, C., Pfannenberg, C., Pichler, B., Reimold, M., Stegger, L.

Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 51(8):1198-1205, August 2010 (article)

ei

Web DOI [BibTex]

Web DOI [BibTex]


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Epidural ECoG Online Decoding of Arm Movement Intention in Hemiparesis

Gomez Rodriguez, M., Grosse-Wentrup, M., Peters, J., Naros, G., Hill, J., Schölkopf, B., Gharabaghi, A.

In Proceedings of the 1st ICPR Workshop on Brain Decoding: Pattern Recognition Challenges in Neuroimaging (ICPR WBD 2010), pages: 36-39, (Editors: J. Richiardi and D Van De Ville and C Davatzikos and J Mourao-Miranda), IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 1st Workshop on Brain Decoding (WBD), August 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) that rely upon epidural electrocorticographic signals may become a promising tool for neurorehabilitation of patients with severe hemiparatic syndromes due to cerebrovascular, traumatic or tumor-related brain damage. Here, we show in a patient-based feasibility study that online classification of arm movement intention is possible. The intention to move or to rest can be identified with high accuracy (~90 %), which is sufficient for BCI-guided neurorehabilitation. The observed spatial distribution of relevant features on the motor cortex indicates that cortical reorganization has been induced by the brain lesion. Low- and high-frequency components of the electrocorticographic power spectrum provide complementary information towards classification of arm movement intention.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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libDAI: A Free and Open Source C++ Library for Discrete Approximate Inference in Graphical Models

Mooij, JM.

Journal of Machine Learning Research, 11, pages: 2169-2173, August 2010 (article)

Abstract
This paper describes the software package libDAI, a free & open source C++ library that provides implementations of various exact and approximate inference methods for graphical models with discrete-valued variables. libDAI supports directed graphical models (Bayesian networks) as well as undirected ones (Markov random fields and factor graphs). It offers various approximations of the partition sum, marginal probability distributions and maximum probability states. Parameter learning is also supported. A feature comparison with other open source software packages for approximate inference is given. libDAI is licensed under the GPL v2+ license and is available at http://www.libdai.org.

ei

PDF PDF [BibTex]

PDF PDF [BibTex]


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Convolutive blind source separation by efficient blind deconvolution and minimal filter distortion

Zhang, K., Chan, L.

Neurocomputing, 73(13-15):2580-2588, August 2010 (article)

Abstract
Convolutive blind source separation (BSS) usually encounters two difficulties—the filter indeterminacy in the recovered sources and the relatively high computational load. In this paper we propose an efficient method to convolutive BSS, by dealing with these two issues. It consists of two stages, namely, multichannel blind deconvolution (MBD) and learning the post-filters with the minimum filter distortion (MFD) principle. We present a computationally efficient approach to MBD in the first stage: a vector autoregression (VAR) model is first fitted to the data, admitting a closed-form solution and giving temporally independent errors; traditional independent component analysis (ICA) is then applied to these errors to produce the MBD results. In the second stage, the least linear reconstruction error (LLRE) constraint of the separation system, which was previously used to regularize the solutions to nonlinear ICA, enforces a MFD principle of the estimated mixing system for convolutive BSS. One can then easily learn the post-filters to preserve the temporal structure of the sources. We show that with this principle, each recovered source is approximately the principal component of the contributions of this source to all observations. Experimental results on both synthetic data and real room recordings show the good performance of this method.

ei

PDF PDF DOI [BibTex]


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Simulating Human Table Tennis with a Biomimetic Robot Setup

Mülling, K., Kober, J., Peters, J.

In From Animals to Animats 11, pages: 273-282, (Editors: Doncieux, S. , B. Girard, A. Guillot, J. Hallam, J.-A. Meyer, J.-B. Mouret), Springer, Berlin, Germany, 11th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (SAB), August 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Playing table tennis is a difficult motor task which requires fast movements, accurate control and adaptation to task parameters. Although human beings see and move slower than most robot systems they outperform all table tennis robots significantly. In this paper we study human table tennis and present a robot system that mimics human striking behavior. Therefore we model the human movements involved in hitting a table tennis ball using discrete movement stages and the virtual hitting point hypothesis. The resulting model is implemented on an anthropomorphic robot arm with 7 degrees of freedom using robotics methods. We verify the functionality of the model both in a physical realistic simulation of an anthropomorphic robot arm and on a real Barrett WAM.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Cooperative Cuts for Image Segmentation

Jegelka, S., Bilmes, J.

(UWEETR-1020-0003), University of Washington, Washington DC, USA, August 2010 (techreport)

Abstract
We propose a novel framework for graph-based cooperative regularization that uses submodular costs on graph edges. We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm to solve the resulting hard discrete optimization problem, and show that it has a guaranteed approximation factor. The edge-submodular formulation is amenable to the same extensions as standard graph cut approaches, and applicable to a range of problems. We apply this method to the image segmentation problem. Specifically, Here, we apply it to introduce a discount for homogeneous boundaries in binary image segmentation on very difficult images, precisely, long thin objects and color and grayscale images with a shading gradient. The experiments show that significant portions of previously truncated objects are now preserved.

ei

Web [BibTex]

Web [BibTex]


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Inferring High-Dimensional Causal Relations using Free Probability Theory

Zscheischler, J.

Humboldt Universität Berlin, Germany, August 2010 (diplomathesis)

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Statistical image analysis and percolation theory

Langovoy, M., Wittich, O.

28th European Meeting of Statisticians (EMS), August 2010 (talk)

ei

PDF Web [BibTex]

PDF Web [BibTex]


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Adapting Preshaped Grasping Movements Using Vision Descriptors

Kroemer, O., Detry, R., Piater, J., Peters, J.

In From Animals to Animats 11, pages: 156-166, (Editors: Doncieux, S. , B. Girard, A. Guillot, J. Hallam, J.-A. Meyer, J.-B. Mouret), Springer, Berlin, Germany, 11th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (SAB), August 2010 (inproceedings)

Abstract
Grasping is one of the most important abilities needed for future service robots. In the task of picking up an object from between clutter, traditional robotics approaches would determine a suitable grasping point and then use a movement planner to reach the goal. The planner would require precise and accurate information about the environment and long computation times, both of which are often not available. Therefore, methods are needed that execute grasps robustly even with imprecise information gathered only from standard stereo vision. We propose techniques that reactively modify the robot‘s learned motor primitives based on non-parametric potential fields centered on the Early Cognitive Vision descriptors. These allow both obstacle avoidance, and the adapting of finger motions to the object‘s local geometry. The methods were tested on a real robot, where they led to improved adaptability and quality of grasping actions.

ei

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]

PDF Web DOI [BibTex]


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Fast algorithms for total-variationbased optimization

Barbero, A., Sra, S.

(194), Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, August 2010 (techreport)

Abstract
We derive a number of methods to solve efficiently simple optimization problems subject to a totalvariation (TV) regularization, under different norms of the TV operator and both for the case of 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional data. In spite of the non-smooth, non-separable nature of the TV terms considered, we show that a dual formulation with strong structure can be derived. Taking advantage of this structure we develop adaptions of existing algorithms from the optimization literature, resulting in efficient methods for the problem at hand. Experimental results show that for 1-dimensional data the proposed methods achieve convergence within good accuracy levels in practically linear time, both for L1 and L2 norms. For the more challenging 2-dimensional case a performance of order O(N2 log2 N) for N x N inputs is achieved when using the L2 norm. A final section suggests possible extensions and lines of further work.

ei

PDF [BibTex]

PDF [BibTex]


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Kernels and methods for selecting kernels for use in learning machines

Bartlett, P. L., Elisseeff, A., Schölkopf, B., Chapelle, O.

United States Patent, No 7788193, August 2010 (patent)

ei

[BibTex]

[BibTex]


Thumb xl testing results 1
Trainable, Vision-Based Automated Home Cage Behavioral Phenotyping

Jhuang, H., Garrote, E., Edelman, N., Poggio, T., Steele, A., Serre, T.

In Measuring Behavior, August 2010 (inproceedings)

ps

pdf [BibTex]

pdf [BibTex]


Thumb xl toc image patent
Magnetic Nanostructured Propellers

Fischer, P., Ghosh, A.

July 2010 (patent)

pf

[BibTex]

[BibTex]